nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2011‒08‒15
seven papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. How Does Occupational Status Impact Bridge Job Prevalence? By Kevin E. Cahill; Michael D. Giandrea; Joseph F. Quinn
  2. International Women's Soccer and Gender Inequality: Revisited By Joshua Congdon-Hohman; Victor Matheson
  3. Substitution Between Individual and Cultural Capital: Pre-Migration Labor Supply, Culture and US Labor Market Outcomes Among Immigrant Woman By Blau, Francine D.; Kahn, Lawrence M.
  4. Inequality among the Wealthy By Frank A Cowell
  5. Commitment to Equity Assessment (CEQ): A Diagnostic Framework to Assess Governments' Fiscal Policies Handbook By Nora Lustig
  6. Scholars Who Became Practitioners: the Influence of Research on the Design, Evaluation and Political Survival of Mexico's Anti-poverty Program Progresa/Oportunidades By Nora Lustig
  7. Economic Returns to Education: What We Know, What We Don’t Know, and Where We Are Going – Some Brief Pointers By Matt Dickson; Colm Harmon

  1. By: Kevin E. Cahill (Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College); Michael D. Giandrea (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics); Joseph F. Quinn (Boston College)
    Abstract: Is bridge job prevalence reduced significantly if a change in occupation is required in addition to the hours and tenure requirements that typically define bridge job employment? Prior research has shown that the majority of older Americans with career employment do not exit the labor force directly from their careers. Rather, most career individuals take on a “bridge job” later in life, that is, a job that follows full-time career (FTC) employment and precedes complete labor force withdrawal (i.e., retirement). One criticism of this finding is that bridge job prevalence may be overstated because the definition of a bridge job in the existing literature does not require a change in occupation. This paper investigates the extent to which bridge jobs involve a change in occupation or a switch to part-time status, both of which may signal retirement transitions as opposed to continued career employment, albeit with a different employer. We use the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally-representative longitudinal dataset of older Americans that began in 1992 as the basis for our analysis. We find that, among HRS respondents who were on a FTC job at the time of the first interview and who changed jobs in subsequent waves, 48 percent of the men and 40 percent of the women also changed occupations, using 2-digit occupation codes. Further, when hours worked are also considered, we find that more than three quarters of FTC respondents who changed jobs later in life had either a change in occupation or a switch from full-time to part-time status. Finally, an examination of those career workers who changed jobs but not occupations and who remained working full time reveals that, as a whole, they resemble those who took bridge jobs rather than those who remained on their FTC job. We conclude that the vast majority of career workers who changed jobs later in life did in fact do so as part of a retirement transition.
    Keywords: Economics of Aging, Partial Retirement, Occupation Change, Gradual Retirement
    JEL: J26 J14 J32 H55
    Date: 2011–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bls:wpaper:ec110050&r=ltv
  2. By: Joshua Congdon-Hohman (Department of Economics, College of the Holy Cross); Victor Matheson (Department of Economics, College of the Holy Cross)
    Abstract: A number of authors have identified the determinants of success in international sporting competitions such as the Olympics and soccer’s World Cup. This paper serves to update past work on international women’s soccer performance given the rapid development of the game over the past decade. We compare the determinants of men’s international soccer team performance with that of their female counterparts and find that a different set of variables are important in explaining success for the two genders. While economic and demographic influences hold for both, the impacts of specific political and cultural factors diverge. In particular, Latin heritage predicts men’s success but not women’s, Muslim religious affiliation reduces women’s success but not men’s, and communist political systems tend to improve women’s performance but reduce men’s performance. Several measures of gender equality improve soccer performance for both men’s and women’s soccer suggesting these indicators of gender equality reflect overall levels of development while other measures of equality, particularly those related to women’s access to education, improve women’s soccer performance without enhancing men’s performance.
    Keywords: soccer, football, gender inequality, FIFA World Ranking
    JEL: I00 J16 L83 Z13
    Date: 2011–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hcx:wpaper:1107&r=ltv
  3. By: Blau, Francine D. (Cornell University); Kahn, Lawrence M. (Cornell University)
    Abstract: In this paper we use New Immigrant Survey data to investigate the impact of immigrant women's own labor supply prior to migrating and female labor supply in their source country to provide evidence on the role of human capital and culture in affecting their labor supply and wages in the United States. We find, as expected, that women who migrate from countries with relatively high levels of female labor supply work more in the United States. Moreover, most of this effect remains when we further control for each woman’s own labor supply prior to migrating, which itself also strongly affects labor supply in the United States. Importantly, we find a significantly negative interaction between pre-migration labor supply and source country female labor supply. We obtain broadly similar effects analyzing the determinants of hourly earnings among the employed in the United States, although the results are not always significant. These results suggest an important role for culture and norms in affecting immigrant women's labor supply, since the effect of source country female labor supply on immigrant women's US work hours is still strong even controlling for the immigrant’s own pre-migration labor supply. The negative interaction effects between previous work experience and source country female labor supply on women's US work hours and wages suggest that cultural capital and individual job-related human capital act as substitutes in affecting preparedness for work in the US.
    Keywords: gender, immigration, labor supply, human capital
    JEL: J16 J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2011–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5890&r=ltv
  4. By: Frank A Cowell
    Abstract: Using the evidence from the Luxembourg Wealth Study it appears that the distribution of wealth in the UK is considerably less than in Canada, the US or Sweden. But does this result come from an underestimate of inequality among the wealthy and of the wealth differential between the rich and the rest? Using a Pareto model for the upper tail of the distribution we can see that the inequality of comparisons of the UK with the other countries is indeed robust.
    Keywords: wealth distribution
    JEL: D31
    Date: 2011–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cep:sticas:case150&r=ltv
  5. By: Nora Lustig (Department of Economics, Tulane University)
    Abstract: Fiscal policy can change poverty and inequality substantially or slightly depending on the government’s redistributive effort. We develop a diagnostic framework to assess how aligned fiscal policies are with supporting a minimum living standard and human capital accumulation, as well as with reducing inequality. The Commitment to Equity Assessment (CEQ) evaluates efforts based on whether governments: i. collect and allocate enough resources to support a minimum living standard for all; ii. collect and distribute resources equitably; iii. ensure that spending is fiscally sustainable and that programs are of good quality and incentive compatible; iv. collect and publish relevant information, as well as are subject to independent evaluations. CEQ relies on inequality, poverty and tax and benefit incidence analyses.
    Keywords: poverty, inequality, fiscal incidence, social policy, Latin America
    JEL: H5 H51 H52 H53 O15
    Date: 2011–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tul:wpaper:1122&r=ltv
  6. By: Nora Lustig (Department of Economics, Tulane University)
    Abstract: Celebrated by academics, multilateral organizations, policy-makers and the media, Mexico’s Progresa/Oportunidades conditional cash transfers program (CCT) is constantly used as a model of a successful anti-poverty program. Here I argue that the transformation of well-trained scholars into influential practitioners played a fundamental role in promoting a new conceptual approach to poverty reduction, ensuring the technical soundness and effectiveness of the program, incorporating rigorous impact evaluation, and persuading politicians to implement and keep the program in place. The involvement of scholars-practitioners also helped disseminate the new CCT "technology" to many countries around the world within a decade.
    Keywords: anti-poverty programs, conditional cash transfers, scholars, practitioners, Progresa, Oportunidades, Mexico
    JEL: H3 H53 I3 O2
    Date: 2011–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tul:wpaper:1123&r=ltv
  7. By: Matt Dickson (UCD Geary Institute, University College Dublin CMPO, University of Bristol); Colm Harmon (UCD Geary Institute, University College Dublin Research School of Economics, Australian National University IZA, Bonn)
    Abstract: The estimation of the economic return to education has perhaps been one of the predominant areas of analysis in applied economics for over 50 years. In this short note we consider some of the recent directions taken by the literature, and also some of the blockages faced by both science and policymakers in pushing forward some key issues. This serves by way of introduction to a set of papers for a special issue of the Economics of Education Review.
    Keywords: Returns to education, education policy
    JEL: J08 J30 J38 C21
    Date: 2011–08–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ucd:wpaper:201115&r=ltv

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