nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2006‒12‒22
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. Trends in Hours and Economic Growth By Rachel Ngai; Christopher A. Pissarides
  2. Pay for Performance Where Output is Hard to Measure: the Case of Performance Pay for School Teachers By Richard Belfield; David Marsden
  3. Unemployment and Hours of Work: The North Atlantic Divide Revisited By Christopher A. Pissarides
  4. The Depression Report: A New Deal for Depression and Anxiety Disorders By Richard Layard & CEP Mental Health Policy Group
  5. Understanding Attitudes to Immigration: The Migration and Minority module of the first European Social Survey By David Card; Christian Dustmann; Ian Preston
  6. Individual Attitudes towards Immigrants: Welfare-State Determinants Across Countries By Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda

  1. By: Rachel Ngai; Christopher A. Pissarides
    Abstract: We study long-run trends in market hours of work and employment shifts across economicsectors driven by uneven TFP growth in market and home production. We focus on thestructural transformation between agriculture, manufacturing and services and on themarketization of home production. The model can rationalize the observed falling or Ushapedpattern for aggregate hours, the shift from agriculture to services and balancedaggregate growth. We find support for the model's predictions in long-run US data.
    Keywords: hours of work, labour supply, structural transformation, home production,marketization, balanced growth
    JEL: J21 J22 O14 O41
    Date: 2006–08
  2. By: Richard Belfield; David Marsden
    Abstract: The introduction of performance-related pay with Performance Management in the state school sector of England and Wales represents a considerable change in the school management system. After 2000, all teachers were subject to annual goal setting performance reviews. Experienced teachers were offered an extended pay scale based on performance instead of seniority, and to gain access to the new upper pay scale, teachers had to go through a 'threshold assessment' based on their professional skills and performance. This paper reports the results of a panel survey of classroom and head teachers which started in 2000 just before implementation of the new system, and then after one and after four years of operation. We find that both classroom and head teacher views have changed considerably over time, from initial general skepticism and opposition towards a more positive view, especially among head teachers by 2004. We argue that the adoption of an integrative bargaining approach to performance reviews explains why a growing minority of schools have achieved improved goal setting, and improved pupil attainments as they have implemented performancemanagement. Pay for performance has been one of the measures of organizational support that headteachers could bring to induce changes in teachers' classroom priorities. We argue that the teachers' case shows that a wider range of performance incentives than previously thought can be offered to employees in such occupations, provided that goal setting and performance measurement are approached as a form of negotiation instead of top-down.
    Keywords: Education, teachers, performance related pay, public sector, compensation, industrial relations
    JEL: I2 J33 J45 M52
    Date: 2006–08
  3. By: Christopher A. Pissarides
    Abstract: I examine the dynamic evolutions of unemployment, hours of work and the service sharesince the war in the United States and Europe. The theoretical model brings together allthree and emphasizes technological growth. Computations show that the very lowunemployment in Europe in the 1960s was due to the high productivity growth associatedwith technological catch-up. Productivity also played a role in the dynamics of hours buta full explanation for the fast rise of service employment and the big fall in aggregatehours needs further research. Taxation has played a role but results are mixed.
    Keywords: Unemployment, hours of work, service employment, structural change, laborproductivity taxation
    JEL: E24 J21 J22 J64 O14
    Date: 2006–10
  4. By: Richard Layard & CEP Mental Health Policy Group
    Keywords: Depression, mental health
    Date: 2006–06
  5. By: David Card (Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM)); Christian Dustmann (Department of Economics and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London); Ian Preston (Department of Economics and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London)
    Abstract: Immigration control is an issue that figures prominently in public policy discussions and election campaigns throughout Europe. Although immigration may have positive effects on economic efficiency and growth in the receiving economy, it is often the negative aspects -or perceived negative aspects - of immigration that attract the most attention. In this paper, we use the immigration module of the European Social Survey (ESS), which we developed in collaboration with the ESS survey team, to investigate public opinions about immigration, and the various dimensions of economic, public and private life that individuals feel are affected by immigration. We show that that there is substantial variation in the strength of anti-immigrant opinion across European countries, and that attitudes toward immigration also vary systematically with characteristics such as age, education, and urban/rural location. We propose possible interpretations of some of these regularities.
    Keywords: Migration, Survey, Attitudes
    Date: 2005–06
  6. By: Giovanni Facchini (Economics Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Anna Maria Mayda (Department of Economics and SFS, Georgetown University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes towards immigrants - within and across countries - and their interaction with labor-market drivers of preferences. We consider two different mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigration. Under the first scenario, immigration has a larger impact on individuals at the top of the income distribution, while under the second one it is low-income individuals who are most affected through this channel. Individual attitudes are consistent with the first welfare-state scenario and with labor-market determinants of immigration attitudes. In countries where natives are on average more skilled than immigrants, individual income is negatively correlated with pro-immigration preferences, while individual skill is positively correlated with them. These relationships have the opposite signs in economies characterized by skilled migration (relative to the native population). Such results are confirmed when we exploit international differences in the characteristics of destination countries' welfare state.
    Date: 2006–05

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