nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2006‒12‒16
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. The Impact of Institutions on Motherhood and Work By Daniela Del Boca; Silvia Pasqua; Chiara Pronzato
  2. Irreversibility of time, reversibility of choices ? The Life-Course foundations of the transitional labour markets approach By Dominique Anxo; Christine Erhel
  3. The Effects of the Ageing European Population on Economic Growth and Budgets: Implications for Immigration and Other Policies By Martin S. Feldstein
  4. Do Students Care about School Quality? Determinants of Dropout Behavior in Developing Countries By Eric A. Hanushek; Victor Lavy; Kohtaro Hitomi
  5. Evaluating Targeting Efficiency of Government Programmes: International Comparisons By Nanak Kakwani; Hyun H. Son

  1. By: Daniela Del Boca (University of Turin); Silvia Pasqua (University of Turin); Chiara Pronzato (Institute for Social and Economic Research)
    Abstract: In this paper, we aim to explore the impact of social policies and labour market characteristics on the woman’s joint decisions of working and having children, using data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). We include in the analysis, beyond personal characteristics, variables related to the childcare system, parental leave arrangements, and labour market flexibility. Results show that a non negligible portion of the differences in participation and fertility rates across women from different European countries can be attributed to the characteristics of these institutions.
    Keywords: employment, europe, fertility
    Date: 2006–11
  2. By: Dominique Anxo (Centre for Labour Market Policy Research - [University of Växjö]); Christine Erhel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - [CNRS : UMR8174] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I])
    Abstract: The article analyses the potential links between the life course approach and the Transitional Labour Market (TLM) perspective. It provides some empirical evidence of the role played by age and gender in individuals' situation on the labour market, as well as of the heterogeneity in course patterns in Europe, using available data about employment rates, but also transitions matrices. It develops the theoretical foundations of the life course approach, and shows how it can be articulated with the TLM framework. First, the life course approach provides some insights concerning the determinants of transitions, and their differentiation by age and gender. Second, it offers a conceptualization of time and irreversibility which helps understanding path dependency at both individual level, and underlines the importance of favouring the reversibility of choices through global policy reforms.
    Keywords: Labour market, transitional labour markets, life course, age, gender.
    Date: 2006–12–06
  3. By: Martin S. Feldstein
    Abstract: The ageing of the population presents a major fiscal challenge for the countries of Europe. The combination of increased longevity and a reduced birth rate will directly reduce the growth rates of the European economies by slowing the growth of the capital stock and by weakening the productivity of the labor force. This slower growth of GDP means a smaller tax base and less tax revenue. In addition, the current tax-financed systems of social pensions and health care will require substantial increases in the already high tax rates. The analysis in this paper shows that the common prescription of increased immigration would do little to reduce the future fiscal burden. The increased revenue from a large rise in immigration would finance only a small part of the coming rise in the cost of pension and health benefits. The only alternative to significantly higher tax rates or substantially lower retirement income is to shift from a pure tax-financed system to a mixed system that supplements the tax financed benefits with benefits based on increased saving financial investment.
    JEL: H2 H55 J61
    Date: 2006–12
  4. By: Eric A. Hanushek; Victor Lavy; Kohtaro Hitomi
    Abstract: School quality and grade completion by students are shown to be directly linked, leading to very different perspectives on educational policy in developing countries. Unique panel data on primary school age children in Egypt permit estimation of behavioral models of school leaving. Students perceive differences in school quality, measured as expected achievement improvements in a given school, and act on it. Specifically, holding constant the student's own ability and achievement, a student is much less likely to remain in school if attending a low quality school rather than a high quality school. This individually rationale behavior suggests that common arguments about a trade-off between quality and access to schools may misstate the real issue and lead to public investment in too little quality. Further, because of this behavioral linkage, there is an achievement bias such that common estimates of rates of return to years of school will be overstated. The paper demonstrates the analytical importance of employing output-based measures of school quality.
    JEL: H4 I2 J2 O15
    Date: 2006–12
  5. By: Nanak Kakwani; Hyun H. Son
    Abstract: This paper suggests how the targeting efficiency of government programmes may be better assessed. Using the “pro-poor policy” (PPP) index developed by the authors, the study investigates not only the pro-poorness of government programmes geared to the poorest segment of the population but also basic service delivery in education, health and infrastructure. The paper also shows that the targeting efficiency for a particular socio-economic group should be judged on the basis of a ‘total-group PPP index’, to capture the impact of operating a programme for the group. Using micro-unit data from household surveys, the paper presents a comparative analysis for Thailand, the Russian Federation, Viet Nam and 15 African countries.
    Keywords: Targeting, universalism, pro-poor, poverty
    JEL: C15 I32
    Date: 2006–02

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