nep-lma New Economics Papers
on Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, and Wages
Issue of 2022‒03‒07
23 papers chosen by
Joseph Marchand
University of Alberta

  1. Does Over-Education Raise Productivity and Wages Equally? The Moderating Role of Workers' Origin and Immigrants' Background By Jacobs, Valentine; Rycx, Francois; Volral, Mélanie
  2. Inequalities in the Times of a Pandemic By Stefanie Stantcheva
  3. The Marginal Labor Supply Disincentives of Welfare: Evidence from Administrative Barriers to Participation By Robert A. Moffitt; Matthew V. Zahn
  4. Occupational Licensing and the Healthcare Labor Market By Marcus Dillender; Anthony T. Lo Sasso; Brian J. Phelan; Michael R. Richards
  5. Has the Willingness to Work Fallen during the COVID Pandemic? By Faberman, Jason; Mueller, Andreas I.; Sahin, Aysegül
  6. Do firms or workers drive the foreign acquisition wage premium? By Marcus Rösch; Michiel Gerritse; Bas Karreman; Frank van Oort; Bart Loog
  7. Schools, Job Flexibility, and Married Women's Labor Supply: Evidence From the COVID-19 Pandemic By Benjamin Hansen; Joseph J. Sabia; Jessamyn Schaller
  8. Planning for the “Expected Unexpected”: Work and Retirement in the U.S. After the COVID-19 Pandemic Shock By Richard B. Freeman
  9. The Variability and Volatility of Sleep: An ARCHetypal Behavior By Daniel S. Hamermesh; Gerard A. Pfann
  10. Inclusive Monetary Policy: How Tight Labor Markets Facilitate Broad-Based Employment Growth By Nittai Bergman; David A. Matsa; Michael Weber
  11. Zero-hours Contracts in a Frictional Labor Market By Juan J. Dolado; Ãtienne Lalé; Hélène Turon
  12. Female Labor Supply and International Trade By Gu, Ke; Stoyanov, Andrey
  13. Minimum Wages, Efficiency and Welfare By David W. Berger; Kyle F. Herkenhoff; Simon Mongey
  14. What's Another Day? The Effects of Wait Time for Substance Abuse Treatment on Health-Care Utilization, Employment and Crime By Williams, Jenny; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line
  15. Determinants of labour market exit of older workers in the Slovak Republic By Jakub Fodor; Oliver Roehn; Hyunjeong Hwang
  16. Lethal Unemployment Bonuses? Substitution and Income Effects on Substance Abuse, 2020-21 By Casey B. Mulligan
  17. Import penetration and manufacturing employment: Evidence from Africa By Owusu, Solomon; Ndubuisi, Gideon; Mensah, Emmanuel. B.
  18. Agrarian Origins of Individualism and Collectivism By Martin Fiszbein; Yeonha Jung; Dietrich Vollrath
  19. Teacher Labor Market Equilibrium and Student Achievement By Michael D. Bates; Michael Dinerstein; Andrew C. Johnston; Isaac Sorkin
  20. Empirical Strategies in Economics: Illuminating the Path from Cause to Effect By Joshua Angrist
  21. Maternal employment and childhood malnutrition in Ecuador By José Carlos Andrade; Joan Gil
  22. Sheltered employment for people with disabilities: An international appraisal with illustrations from the Spanish case By Malo, Miguel A.; Vanesa, Rodríguez
  23. Job Satisfaction Among Healthcare Workers in the Aftermath of the COVID-19 Pandemic By Barili, E.; Bertoli, P.; Grembi, V.; Rattini, V.

  1. By: Jacobs, Valentine (Free University of Brussels); Rycx, Francois (Free University of Brussels); Volral, Mélanie (University of Mons)
    Abstract: We provide first evidence of the impact of over-education, among natives and immigrants, on firm-level productivity and wages. We use Belgian linked panel data and rely on the methodology from Hellerstein et al. (1999) to estimate ORU (over-, required, and under-education) equations aggregated at the firm level. Our results show that the over-education wage premium is higher for natives than for immigrants. However, since the differential in productivity gains associated with over-education between natives and immigrants outweighs the corresponding wage premium differential, we conclude – based on OLS and dynamic GMM-SYS estimates – that over-educated native workers are in fact underpaid to a greater extent than their over-educated immigrant counterparts. This conclusion is refined by sensitivity analyses, when testing the role of immigrants' background (e.g. region of birth, immigrant generation, age at arrival in the host country, tenure).
    Keywords: immigrants, over-education, productivity, wages, linked panel data, Belgium
    JEL: J24 J71
    Date: 2022–02
  2. By: Stefanie Stantcheva
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the research on some of the major inequalities that have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic across OECD countries. It reviews findings related to inequalities across the income distribution, sectors and regions, gender, and inequalities in education inputs for children from different socioeconomic backgrounds.
    JEL: E24 E3 H20 J24 J6 J81
    Date: 2022–01
  3. By: Robert A. Moffitt; Matthew V. Zahn
    Abstract: Existing research on the static effects of the manipulation of welfare program benefit parameters on labor supply has allowed only restrictive forms of heterogeneity in preferences. Yet preference heterogeneity implies that the marginal effects on labor supply of welfare expansions and contractions may differ in different time periods with different populations and which sweep out different portions of the distribution of preferences. A new examination of the heavily studied AFDC program uses variation in state-level administrative barriers to entering the program in the late 1980s and early 1990s to estimate the marginal labor supply effects of changes in program participation induced by that variation. The estimates are obtained from a theory-consistent reduced form model which allows for a nonparametric specification of how changes in welfare program participation affect labor supply on the margin. Estimates using a form of local instrumental variables show that the marginal treatment effects are quadratic, rising and then falling as participation rates rise (i.e., becoming more negative then less negative on hours of work). The average work disincentive is not large but that masks some margins where effects are close to zero and some which are sizable. Traditional IV which estimates a weighted average of marginal effects gives a misleading picture of marginal responses. A counterfactual exercise which applies the estimates to three historical reform periods in 1967, 1981, and 1996 when the program tax rate was significantly altered shows that marginal labor supply responses differed in each period because of differences in the level of participation in the period and the composition of who was on the program.
    Date: 2022–02
  4. By: Marcus Dillender; Anthony T. Lo Sasso; Brian J. Phelan; Michael R. Richards
    Abstract: We examine the labor market impact of states easing occupational license requirements by expanding the scope of practice (SOP) for nurse practitioners (NPs), allowing them to practice without physician oversight. Using data on job postings, we find that employers increase their demand for NPs when states expand NP SOP. We then show that these laws increase NP earnings and reallocate NPs across the healthcare sector, increasing self-employment and changing industrial employment. However, we see no evidence that these laws have increased overall NP employment. Our results suggest that expanding NP SOP has the potential to increase the number of primary care providers, but inelastic labor supply for NPs is largely preventing this from occurring.
    JEL: I11 J44
    Date: 2022–01
  5. By: Faberman, Jason (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago); Mueller, Andreas I. (University of Texas at Austin); Sahin, Aysegül (University of Texas at Austin)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of the Covid pandemic on willingness to work along both the extensive and intensive margins of labor supply. Special survey questions in the Job Search Supplement of the Survey of Consumer Expectations (SCE) allow us to elicit information about individuals' desired work hours for the 2013-2021 period. Using these questions, along with workers' actual labor market participation, we construct a labor market underutilization measure, the Aggregate Hours Gap (AHG), following Faberman et al. (2020). The AHG captures changes in labor market underutilization for the full population along both the extensive and intensive margins using data on desired work hours as a measure of their potential labor supply. We find that the sharp increase in the AHG during the Covid pandemic essentially disappeared by the end of 2021. We also document a sharp decline in desired work hours during the pandemic that persists through the end of 2021 and is roughly double the drop in the labor force participation rate. Ignoring the decline in desired hours overstates the degree of underutilization by 2.5 percentage points (12.5%). Our findings suggest that, as of 2021Q4, the labor market is tighter than suggested by the unemployment rate and the adverse labor supply effect of the pandemic is more pronounced than implied by the labor force participation rate. These discrepancies underscore the importance of taking into account the intensive margin for both labor market underutilization and potential labor supply.
    Keywords: labor market slack, COVID-19, desired work hours, potential labor supply
    JEL: E24 J21 J60
    Date: 2022–02
  6. By: Marcus Rösch (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Michiel Gerritse (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Bas Karreman (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Frank van Oort (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Bart Loog (Statistics Netherlands)
    Abstract: We decompose the wage premium after foreign acquisitions of Dutch domestic firms into the con- stituent firm- and worker-level premia. Firm-level premia grow up to 3.5%, accounting for the major- ity of the acquisition premium. Worker-level premia by contrast, grow up to 1% and only materialize with delay, as the acquired firms hire workers with higher earnings capacity than domestic firms. Within firms, premia are also higher for workers with a relatively high earnings capacity. Though in- dustry variation and firm size class heterogeneity is considerable, the dominance of firm-level premia suggests that foreign acquisitions change firms beyond a workforce reshuffling.
    Keywords: multinational firms, foreign acquisition, wage components, labor mobility, matched employer-employee data, AKM
    JEL: J31 F23 G34
    Date: 2022–02–14
  7. By: Benjamin Hansen; Joseph J. Sabia; Jessamyn Schaller
    Abstract: This study explores the effect of school reopenings during the COVID-19 pandemic on married women's labor supply. We proxy for in-person attendance at US K-12 schools using smartphone data from Safegraph and measure female employment, hours, and remote work using the Current Population Survey. Difference-in-differences estimates show that K-12 reopenings are associated with significant increases in employment and hours among married women with school-aged children, with no measurable effects on labor supply in comparison groups. Employment effects of school reopenings are concentrated among mothers of older school-aged children, while remote work may mitigate effects for mothers of younger children.
    JEL: I21 I38 J08 J11 J12 J21 J22 J48
    Date: 2022–01
  8. By: Richard B. Freeman
    Abstract: This chapter analyzes the implications of the unexpected 2020-2021 COVID-19 pandemic for work and retirement in the U.S. The pandemic induced the greatest loss of jobs in the shortest period of time in U.S. history. A slow economic recovery would surely have endangered work longer/retire later policies that seek to adjust the finances of Social Security retirement to an aging population. Boosted by the huge CARES (March 2020) and ARPA (April 2021) rescue packages, the early recovery from the COVID-19 recession was faster and stronger than the recovery from the 2007-2009 Great Recession. Even so, the pandemic greatly altered the job market, with workers suffering from long COVID having difficulty returning to work and more workers working from home. In its immediate effect and potential long-run impact, the pandemic recession/recovery is a wake-up call to the danger that shocks from the natural world pose to work and retirement. Realistic planning for the future of work and retirement should go beyond analyzing socioeconomic trends to analyzing expected unexpected changes from the natural world as well.
    JEL: C53 J01 J11 J20 J26 J38
    Date: 2022–01
  9. By: Daniel S. Hamermesh; Gerard A. Pfann
    Abstract: Using Dutch time-diary data from 1975-2005 covering over 10,000 respondents for 7 consecutive days each, we show that individuals’ sleep time exhibits both variability and volatility characterized by stationary autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity: The absolute values of deviations from a person’s average sleep on one day are positively correlated with those on the next day. Sleep is more variable on weekends and among people with less education, who are younger and who do not have young children at home. Volatility is greater among parents with young children, slightly greater among men than women, but independent of other demographics. A theory of economic incentives to minimize the dispersion of sleep predicts that higher-wage workers will exhibit less dispersion, a result demonstrated using extraneous estimates of earnings equations to impute wage rates. Volatility in sleep spills over onto volatility in other personal activities, with no reverse causation onto sleep. The results illustrate a novel dimension of economic inequality and could be applied to a wide variety of human behavior and biological processes.
    JEL: C22 I14 J22
    Date: 2022–01
  10. By: Nittai Bergman; David A. Matsa; Michael Weber
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the heterogeneous effects of monetary policy on workers with differing levels of labor force attachment. Exploiting variation in labor market tightness across metropolitan areas, we show that the employment of populations with lower labor force attachment—Blacks, high school dropouts, and women—is more responsive to expansionary monetary policy in tighter labor markets. The effect builds up over time and is long lasting. We develop a New Keynesian model with heterogeneous workers that rationalizes these results. The model shows that expansionary monetary shocks lead to larger increases in the employment of less attached workers when the central bank follows an average inflation targeting rule and when the Phillips curve is flatter. These findings suggest that, by tightening labor markets, the Federal Reserve's recent move from a strict to an average inflation targeting framework especially benefits workers with lower labor force attachment.
    JEL: E12 E24 E31 E43 E52 E58 J24
    Date: 2022–01
  11. By: Juan J. Dolado; Ãtienne Lalé; Hélène Turon
    Abstract: We propose a model to evaluate the U.K.’s zero-hours contract (ZHC) – a contract that exempts employers from the requirement to provide any minimum working hours, and allows workers to decline any workload. We find quantitatively mixed welfare effects of ZHCs. On one hand they unlock job creation among firms that face highly volatile business conditions and increase labor force participation of individuals who prefer flexible work schedules. On the other hand, the use of ZHCs by less volatile firms, where jobs are otherwise viable under regular contracts, reduces welfare and likely explains negative employee reactions to this contract. To quote this document Dolado, J. J., Lalé, E. and Turon, H. (2022). Zero-hours Contracts in a Frictional Labor Market (2022s-04). Nous proposons un modèle pour évaluer le contrat zéro-heures (ZHC) du Royaume-Uni - un contrat qui exempte les employeurs de l'obligation de fournir des heures de travail minimales et qui permet aux travailleurs de refuser toute charge de travail. Nous constatons que les effets quantitatifs des ZHC sur le bien-être sont mitigés. D'une part, ils permettent aux entreprises confrontées à une demande plus volatile de créer des emplois, et ils favorisent la participation au marché du travail des personnes qui préfèrent des horaires de travail flexibles. D'autre part, le recours au ZHC dans les entreprises moins volatiles, où les emplois sont viables dans le cadre de contrats réguliers, réduit le bien-être et explique probablement les réactions négatives des employés vis-à-vis du contrat zéro-heures. Pour citer ce document Dolado, J. J., Lalé, E. and Turon, H. (2022). Zero-hours Contracts in a Frictional Labor Market (2022s-04).
    Keywords: Zero-hours contracts,Working hours,Gig economy,Flexibility, Contrats zéro-heures,Heures de travail,Gig economy,Flexibilité
    JEL: E24 J22 J23 J63 L84
    Date: 2022–01–24
  12. By: Gu, Ke; Stoyanov, Andrey
    Abstract: We study the effect of spatial variation in female labor supply on international trade flows. We identify the set of gender-specific skills and argue that low female labor supply reduces the endowment of female-oriented skills and undermines comparative advantage in industries which use female labor intensively. We confirm this hypothesis using two different settings. First, we show that countries with low female labor supply, measured by female labor force participation, have comparative disadvantage in female-labor-intensive industries. To establish causality, we instrument female labor supply with cross-country differences in cultural values regarding the role of women in society. Second, we confirm the main hypothesis on trade data from Chinese regions. Using spatial variation in sex ratios resulting from the One Child Policy (OCP), we rely on the stringency of OCP as an exogenous female labor supply shifter. Other things equal, regions with higher female population share specialize in industries which use female labor intensively. We interpret our results as highlighting the importance of labor force gender composition for industry's productivity. Our results imply that the effect of gender imbalances in labor supply on labor market outcomes, observed in many parts of the world, can be mitigated through international trade by utilizing relatively abundant type of labor in export-oriented industries.
    Keywords: Female labor supply, comparative advantage, international trade, gender-dependent skills, China's one child policy, altered sex ratios
    JEL: F14 F16 J24
    Date: 2022–01–31
  13. By: David W. Berger; Kyle F. Herkenhoff; Simon Mongey
    Abstract: It has long been argued that a minimum wage could alleviate efficiency losses from monopsony power. In a general equilibrium framework that quantitatively replicates results from recent empirical studies, we find higher minimum wages can improve welfare, but most welfare gains stem from redistribution rather than efficiency. Our model features oligopsonistic labor markets with heterogeneous workers and firms and yields analytical expressions that characterize the mechanisms by which minimum wages can improve efficiency, and how these deteriorate at higher minimum wages. We provide a method to separate welfare gains into two channels: efficiency and redistribution. Under both channels and Utilitarian social welfare weights the optimal minimum wage is $15, but alternative weights can rationalize anything from $0 to $31. Under only the efficiency channel, the optimal minimum wage is narrowly around $8, robust to social welfare weights, and generates small welfare gains that recover only 2 percent of the efficiency losses from monopsony power.
    JEL: E2 J2 J42
    Date: 2022–01
  14. By: Williams, Jenny (University of Melbourne); Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line (Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research (SIRUS))
    Abstract: This research provides the first evidence on the impacts of waiting times for treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD). Using rich linked administrative information from Norway, we study the impact of waiting time on health-care utilization, employment and crime for patients who enter outpatient treatment for cannabis use disorder. Confounding due to unobserved severity of illness is addressed using an instrumental variables strategy that exploits plausibly exogenous variation in congestion in Norway's health-care system. We find that waiting to access treatment increases the use of health-care services at both the extensive and intensive margins, measured by the duration of a treatment episode and the number of consultations within a treatment episode, respectively. Waiting time also has spill-over effects, reducing employment after entering treatment and increasing crime both before and after treatment begins. Together, these findings suggest that waiting times to access treatment for a SUD imposes significant costs on patients, health-care systems, and on society more broadly.
    Keywords: waiting times, cannabis, substance use treatment, employment, crime
    JEL: I12 J22 K42
    Date: 2022–02
  15. By: Jakub Fodor; Oliver Roehn; Hyunjeong Hwang
    Abstract: The Slovak population is set to age rapidly in the next decades, with significant impacts on economic growth and the sustainability of public finances. At the same time, the labour market exit age in Slovakia is among the lowest in the OECD. We use administrative data for Slovakia between 2013 and 2020 to analyse what factors influence the probability of employment exit of older workers. We find that statutory retirement ages have an important influence on the decision to leave employment. Higher educational attainment is associated with later employment exit, suggesting that the employment rate of older workers is likely to increase in the future as younger generations have higher educational attainment. We also find evidence that workers in sectors that are physically more demanding are exiting employment earlier. Impaired health also leads to significantly earlier employment exits. Finally living in a rural area or in areas with high unemployment is associated with earlier exit from the labour market.
    Keywords: ageing, labour supply, older workers, statutory retirement ages
    JEL: J21 J26
    Date: 2022–02–15
  16. By: Casey B. Mulligan
    Abstract: Marginal prices fell, and disposable incomes increased, for drug and alcohol consumers during the pandemic. Most of the amount, timing, and composition of the 240,000 deaths involving alcohol and drugs since early 2020 can be explained by income effects and category-specific price changes. For alcohol, the pandemic shifted consumption from bars and restaurants to homes, where marginal money prices are lower. For more dangerous illegal drugs like fentanyl and methamphetamine, the full price of consumption also significantly fell whenever employment became financially less attractive, as it was while unemployment bonuses were elevated. Both the wage effect and income effects further reduced marginal opioid prices by inducing shifts toward cheap fentanyl. Drug mortality dipped in the months between the $600 and $300 bonuses, especially for age groups participating most in UI. A corollary to this analysis is that national employment rates will be slow to recover due to the increased prevalence of alcohol and, especially, drug addiction.
    JEL: E24 I18 L51
    Date: 2022–02
  17. By: Owusu, Solomon (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and German Development Institute, and University of Oxford); Ndubuisi, Gideon (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and German Development Institute); Mensah, Emmanuel. B. (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and GGDC, University of Groningen)
    Abstract: Exposure to import competition can either help or hurt domestic employment creation. There is, however, a dearth of cross-country empirical evidence assessing labor market effects of import penetration in Africa. This paper fills this gap. Using manufacturing industry and establishment-level data across 20 African countries and estimating a conditional and unconditional labor demand model, we find an unambiguous employment creation effect of intermediate good import penetration, whilst final good import penetration has a negative, or at best, an insignificant effect on employment. Splitting intermediate good import penetration into their origins, we find that intermediate good import penetration from developed (developing) countries is employment increasing (reducing). Further analyses reveal that the positive employment effects of intermediate import penetration from developed countries disproportionately benefit the skilled workforce. We also find that industries with higher absorptive capacity stand to gain more from intermediate good import penetration from developed countries, with the negative effects of intermediate good import penetration from developing countries also diminished for these industries. We discuss the implications of our findings.
    Keywords: Import Penetration, Employment, Absorptive Capacity, Manufacturing, Africa
    JEL: F11 F14 L25 L60 O14 O15
    Date: 2022–02–17
  18. By: Martin Fiszbein; Yeonha Jung; Dietrich Vollrath
    Abstract: We study the influence of agricultural labor intensity on individualism across U.S. counties. To measure historical labor intensity in agriculture we combine data on crop-specific labor requirements and county-specific crop mix around 1900. To address endogeneity we exploit climate-induced variation in crop mix. Our estimates indicate that an increase of one standard deviation in labor intensity is associated with a reduction of 0.2-0.4 standard deviations in individualism (as captured by the share of children with infrequent names). We further document consistent patterns using within-county changes in labor intensity over time due to both mechanization and the boll weevil shock. While culture transformed in response to changes in labor intensity, we also find that historical agricultural patterns had a lasting imprint that influences geographic variation in individualism today.
    JEL: N51 O13 P16
    Date: 2022–01
  19. By: Michael D. Bates; Michael Dinerstein; Andrew C. Johnston; Isaac Sorkin
    Abstract: We study whether reallocating existing teachers across schools within a district can increase student achievement, and what policies would help achieve these gains. Using a model of multi-dimensional value-added, we find meaningful achievement gains from reallocating teachers within a district. Using an estimated equilibrium model of the teacher labor market, we find that achieving most of these gains requires directly affecting teachers' preferences over schools. In contrast, directly affecting principals' selection of teachers can lower student achievement. Our analysis highlights the importance of equilibrium and second-best reasoning in analyzing teacher labor market policies.
    JEL: I28 J08 J45
    Date: 2022–02
  20. By: Joshua Angrist
    Abstract: The view that empirical strategies in economics should be transparent and credible now goes almost without saying. The local average treatment effects (LATE) framework for causal inference helped make this so. The LATE theorem tells us for whom particular instrumental variables (IV) and regression discontinuity estimates are valid. This lecture uses several empirical examples, mostly involving charter and exam schools, to highlight the value of LATE. A surprising exclusion restriction, an assumption central to the LATE interpretation of IV estimates, is shown to explain why enrollment at Chicago exam schools reduces student achievement. I also make two broader points: IV exclusion restrictions formalize commitment to clear and consistent explanations of reduced-form causal effects; compelling applications demonstrate the power of simple empirical strategies to generate new causal knowledge.
    JEL: B23 I21 I28 J13 J22
    Date: 2022–02
  21. By: José Carlos Andrade (Universitat de Barcelona and INEC Ecuador); Joan Gil (Universitat de Barcelona and BEAT)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the causal impact of maternal employment on several childhood malnutrition outcomes in Ecuador, to understand the trade-off between the time mothers devote to work and child-caring activities. We use exogenous regional variation in maternal labour market conditions to account for the potential endogeneity of mothers’ employment. Using the Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey 2018 and the Living Conditions Survey 2014, the instrumental variable estimations indicated that maternal employment increases the probability of having stunted children by between 4.3 and 21 percent, while no significant effect was found on children suffering from wasting, underweight or overweight. We found that children with more educated, richer mothers appeared to be the most negatively affected. The results were robust to several robustness checks.
    Keywords: Maternal employment, malnutrition outcomes, childhood, Ecuador.
    JEL: I15 J22 C21
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Malo, Miguel A.; Vanesa, Rodríguez
    Abstract: This article presents an updated review of the employment policy of sheltered employment for people with disabilities. We review the international literature, focusing on the European Union and especially on Spain, because of the great importance of sheltered employment centres in this country. Studies have increasingly questioned sheltered employment’s ability to promote labour market integration, mainly compared with supported employment. However, we lack clear causal evidence, as these arguments are largely based on descriptive evidence. In addition, sheltered employment centres have shifted to focus on people with physical disabilities rather than those with mental and cognitive disabilities, which was the predominant focus until the 2000s
    Keywords: Disability; sheltered employment centre; integration; European Union; Spain
    JEL: J14 J41
    Date: 2022–01–30
  23. By: Barili, E.; Bertoli, P.; Grembi, V.; Rattini, V.
    Abstract: Using a unique survey of more than 7,000 respondents conducted immediately after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, we investigate potential drivers of the job satisfaction of healthcare workers. Relying on a representative sample of Italian physicians and nurses, we show that, besides personal characteristics (e.g., age, gender, health status), contextual factors (i.e., working conditions) play the leading role in explaining variation in the level of satisfaction (58%). In particular, working in a high-quality facility increases worker satisfaction and willingness to remain in the profession, and in the current medical specialization, while working in a province with a perceived shortage of medical personnel brings the opposite result. Direct experience with COVID-19 (e.g., having tested positive) is not significantly correlated with the level of job satisfaction, which is instead significantly reduced by changes in the working conditions caused by the health emergency.
    Keywords: healthcare workers; job satisfaction; COVID-19 pandemic;
    JEL: I10 J28 Z12
    Date: 2022–02

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