nep-lma New Economics Papers
on Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, and Wages
Issue of 2015‒05‒30
seventeen papers chosen by
Joseph Marchand
University of Alberta

  1. Reducing Crime and Violence: Experimental Evidence on Adult Noncognitive Investments in Liberia By Christopher Blattman; Julian C. Jamison; Margaret Sheridan
  2. Firms and skills: the evolution of worker sorting By Håkanson, Christina; Lindqvist, Erik; Vlachos, Jonas
  3. Firming Up Inequality By Jae Song; David J. Price; Fatih Guvenen; Nicholas Bloom
  4. Who Is More Mobile in Response to Local Demand Shifts in China? By Luo, Dongdong; Xing, Chunbing
  5. Import Competition and the Great U.S. Employment Sag of the 2000s By Acemoglu, Daron; Autor, David; Dorn, David; Hanson, Gordon H.; Price, Brendan
  6. How Does Collective Reputation Affect Hiring? Selection and Sorting in an Online Labour Market By Guo Xu
  7. Family Economics Writ Large By Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner; Guillaume Vandenbroucke
  8. Determinants of Expected Returns at Public Defined-Benefit Pension Plans By Aggarwal, Raj; Goodell, John
  9. The effect of state taxes on the geographical location of top earners: evidence from star scientists By Moretti, Enrico; Wilson, Daniel J.
  10. Do ‘Cheeseburger Bills’ Work? Effects of Tort Reform for Fast Food By Christopher S. Carpenter; D. Sebastian Tello-Trillo
  11. The Rising Cost of Child Care in the United States: A Reassessment of the Evidence By Herbst, Chris M.
  12. Transport infrastructure and welfare : an application to Nigeria By Ali,Rubaba; Barra,Alvaro Federico; Berg,Claudia N.; Damania,Richard; Nash,John D.; Russ,Jason Daniel
  13. The Political Economy of State and Local Investment in Pre-K Programs By Matthew E. Kahn; Kyle Barron
  14. Providing the right skills to all in China: From “made in China” to “created in China” By Margit Molnar; Vincent Koen
  15. The Sources of Wage Growth in a Developing Country By Marinescu, Ioana E.; Triyana, Margaret
  16. New Theoretical Perspectives on the Distribution of Income and Wealth among Individuals: Part I. The Wealth Residual By Joseph E. Stiglitz
  17. Assessing China's skills gap and inequalities in education By Margit Molnar; Boqing Wang; Ruidong Gao

  1. By: Christopher Blattman; Julian C. Jamison; Margaret Sheridan
    Abstract: We show self control and self image are malleable in adults, and that investments in them reduce crime and violence. We recruited criminally-engaged Liberian men and randomized half to eight weeks of group cognitive behavioral therapy, teaching self control skills and a noncriminal self-image. We also randomized $200 grants. Cash raised incomes and reduced crime in the short-run but effects dissipated within a year. Therapy increased self control and noncriminal values, and acts of crime and violence fell 20--50%. Therapy's impacts lasted at least a year when followed by cash, likely because cash reinforced behavioral changes via prolonged practice.
    JEL: D03 J22 K42 O12
    Date: 2015–05
  2. By: Håkanson, Christina (Sveriges Riksbank); Lindqvist, Erik (Stockholm School of Economics, and IFN.); Vlachos, Jonas (Stockholm University and IFN.)
    Abstract: We document a significant increase in the sorting of workers by cognitive and non- cognitive skills across Swedish firms between 1986 and 2008. The weight of the evidence suggests that the increase in sorting is due to stronger complementarities between worker skills and technology. In particular, a large fraction of the increase can be explained by the expansion of the ICT sector and a reallocation of engineers across firms. We also find evidence of increasing assortative matching, in the sense that workers who are particularly skilled in their respective educational groups are more likely to work in the same firms. Changes in sorting pattens and skill gradients can account for a about half of the increase in between-firm wage dispersion.
    Keywords: Skill sorting; skilled-biased technological change; outsourcing; globalization; cognitive skills; non-cognitive skills; personality; employer-employee matched data.
    JEL: J24 J62 L21 O33
    Date: 2015–05–26
  3. By: Jae Song; David J. Price; Fatih Guvenen; Nicholas Bloom
    Abstract: Earnings inequality in the United States has increased rapidly over the last three decades, but little is known about the role of firms in this trend. For example, how much of the rise in earnings inequality can be attributed to rising dispersion between firms in the average wages they pay, and how much is due to rising wage dispersion among workers within firms? Similarly, how did rising inequality affect the wage earnings of different types of workers working for the same employer—men vs. women, young vs. old, new hires vs. senior employees, and so on? To address questions like these, we begin by constructing a matched employer-employee data set for the United States using administrative records. Covering all U.S. firms between 1978 to 2012, we show that virtually all of the rise in earnings dispersion between workers is accounted for by increasing dispersion in average wages paid by the employers of these individuals. In contrast, pay differences within employers have remained virtually unchanged, a finding that is robust across industries, geographical regions, and firm size groups. Furthermore, the wage gap between the most highly paid employees within these firms (CEOs and high level executives) and the average employee has increased only by a small amount, refuting oft-made claims that such widening gaps account for a large fraction of rising inequality in the population.
    JEL: E24 E25 J31 L23
    Date: 2015–05
  4. By: Luo, Dongdong (Beijing Normal University); Xing, Chunbing (Beijing Normal University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we use two nationally representative datasets to examine the population adjustment of demographic groups in response to regional demand shifts between 2000 and 2005. Results from OLS regressions show that population changes of less educated groups are more associated with changes in total city working hours than population changes of educated groups. These findings explain increases in skill premia in coastal regions after China's entry into the WTO, but it does not mean that the former groups are more responsive to demand shocks, because changes in city working hours also reflect other forces such as supply shocks. Using an IV strategy, we find that educated workers are more responsive to demand shocks than those who are less educated. In addition, old subgroups are particularly inert in responding to demand shocks. Our results also suggest that China's household registration (Hukou) system prevents the mobility of urban residents more than it prevents the mobility of rural residents. We propose that Hukou reform should not only abolish the agricultural vs. non-agricultural division, but also change the decentralized (local vs. non-local) feature of the system.
    Keywords: local demand shift, population adjustment, Hukou
    JEL: J23 R23
    Date: 2015–05
  5. By: Acemoglu, Daron (MIT); Autor, David (MIT); Dorn, David (University of Zurich); Hanson, Gordon H. (University of California, San Diego); Price, Brendan (MIT)
    Abstract: Even before the Great Recession, U.S. employment growth was unimpressive. Between 2000 and 2007, the economy gave back the considerable employment gains achieved during the 1990s, with a historic contraction in manufacturing employment being a prime contributor to the slump. We estimate that import competition from China, which surged after 2000, was a major force behind both recent reductions in U.S. manufacturing employment and - through input-output linkages and other general equilibrium channels - weak overall U.S. job growth. Our central estimates suggest job losses from rising Chinese import competition over 1999 through 2011 in the range of 2.0 to 2.4 million.
    Keywords: trade flows, labor demand
    JEL: F16 J23
    Date: 2015–05
  6. By: Guo Xu
    Abstract: How does collective reputation affect hiring and selection into jobs? Using detailed hiring data from a global online labour market, where the country of residence is the salient group characteristic, we document a mechanism through which collective reputation can perpetuate initial group inequality. Using an instrumental variable strategy, we first identify reputational externalities between an employer's very first hire and the propensity to contract more workers from the same country. Employers, contingent on their first worker's performance (as measured by a public rating), go on to almost exclusively hire from the same country. This coincides with a strong and positive supply-side sorting response: Observing their predecessor's success, workers from the same country are more likely to apply and tend to be of higher quality. Employers, facing better applicants, are in turn more likely to continue providing top ratings for later hires from the first hire country. Collective reputation hence appears to serve as a coordination device that enables workers to positively sort with employers: Good workers then attract more good workers from the same country and vice versa.
    JEL: J7 J16 L14
    Date: 2015–05
  7. By: Jeremy Greenwood (University of Pennsylvania); Nezih Guner (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona); Guillaume Vandenbroucke (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)
    Abstract: Powerful currents have reshaped the structure of families over the last century. There has been (i) a dramatic drop in fertility and greater parental investment in children; (ii) a rise in married female labor-force participation; (iii) a decline in marriage and a rise in divorce; (iv) a higher degree of assortative mating; (v) more children living with a single mother; (vi) shifts in social norms governing premarital sex and married women's roles in the labor market. Macroeconomic models explaining these aggregate trends are surveyed. The relentless flow of technological progress and its role in shaping family life are stressed.
    Keywords: Assortative mating, female labor supply, family economics, fertility, household income inequality, household production, human capital, macroeconomics, marriage and divorce, quality-quantity tradeoff, premarital sex, single mothers, social change, survey, technological progress, women's rights
    JEL: D31 D58 E1 E13 J1 J2 J12 J13 J22 N2 N30 O3 O11 O15
    Date: 2015–05
  8. By: Aggarwal, Raj (University of Akron); Goodell, John (University of Akron)
    Abstract: Estimated expected returns are important for pension plans, as they influence many plan characteristics including required asset levels, annual contributions, and the extent of plan under- or overfunding. Yet, there seems to be little prior literature on the factors influencing these estimated future returns. In an attempt to fill this gap, this paper presents the results of a panel analysis of data on the determinants of such returns used by US public defined-benefit (DB) pension plans for the period 2001–2011. As expected, we find that real return estimates by DB public pension funds are positively related to fund size, fund age, international asset diversification, state income, and corruption levels. However, more interestingly and importantly, we document that real return estimates by public US DB pension funds are positively related to cultural measures of individualism and masculinity, and negatively related to uncertainty avoidance. These results should be of much interest not only to scholars and pension benefi ciaries, but also to fund managers, other capital market participants, and policymakers.
    Keywords: public pensions; defined benefit pensions; estimated returns; public policy; pension underfunding; finance and culture
    JEL: H3 H4 H6 I00 J3
    Date: 2015–05–21
  9. By: Moretti, Enrico (University of California, Berkeley); Wilson, Daniel J. (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco)
    Abstract: Using data on the universe of U.S. patents filed between 1976 and 2010, we quantify how sensitive is migration by star scientists to changes in personal and business tax differentials across states. We uncover large, stable, and precisely estimated effects of personal and corporate taxes on star scientists’ migration patterns. The long run elasticity of mobility relative to taxes is 1.6 for personal income taxes, 2.3 for state corporate income tax and -2.6 for the investment tax credit. The effect on mobility is small in the short run, and tends to grow over time. We find no evidence of pre-trends: Changes in mobility follow changes in taxes and do not to precede them. Consistent with their high income, star scientists’ migratory flows are sensitive to changes in the 99th percentile marginal tax rate, but are insensitive to changes in taxes for the median income. As expected, the effect of corporate income taxes is concentrated among private sector inventors: no effect is found on academic and government researchers. Moreover, corporate taxes only matter in states where the wage bill enters the state’s formula for apportioning multi-state income. No effect is found in states that apportion income based only on sales (in which case labor’s location has little or no effect on the tax bill). We also find no evidence that changes in state taxes are correlated with changes in the fortunes of local firms in the innovation sector in the years leading up to the tax change. Overall, we conclude that state taxes have significant effect of the geographical location of star scientists and possibly other highly skilled workers. While there are many other factors that drive when innovative individual and innovative companies decide to locate, there are enough firms and workers on the margin that relative taxes matter.
    Date: 2015–04
  10. By: Christopher S. Carpenter; D. Sebastian Tello-Trillo
    Abstract: After highly publicized lawsuits against McDonald’s in 2002, 26 states adopted Commonsense Consumption Acts (CCAs) – aka ‘Cheeseburger Bills’ – that greatly limit fast food companies’ liability for weight-related harms. We provide the first evidence of the effects of CCAs using plausibly exogenous variation in the timing of CCA adoption across states. In two-way fixed effects models, we find that CCAs significantly increased stated attempts to lose weight and consumption of fruits and vegetables among heavy individuals. We also find that CCAs significantly increased employment in fast food. Finally, we find that CCAs significantly increased the number of company-owned McDonald’s restaurants and decreased the number of franchise-owned McDonald’s restaurants in a state. Overall our results provide novel evidence supporting a key prediction of tort reform – that it should induce individuals to take more care – and show that industry-specific tort reforms can have meaningful effects on market outcomes.
    JEL: I12 I18 K13
    Date: 2015–05
  11. By: Herbst, Chris M. (Arizona State University)
    Abstract: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the cost of child care in the U.S. has increased substantially over the past few decades. This paper marshals data from a variety of sources to rigorously assess the issue. It begins by using nationally representative survey data to trace the evolution in families' child care expenditures. I find that the typical family currently spends 14 percent more on child care than it did in 1990. This is less than half the increase documented in previous work. Interestingly, low-income families spend the same amount or less on child care, while their high-income counterparts spend considerably more. Despite this divergence, families at all income levels allocate the same share of income to child care as they did several decades ago. The next section of the paper draws on establishment- and individual-level data to examine trends in the market price of child care. The evidence suggests that after persistent, albeit modest, growth throughout the 1990s, market prices have been essentially flat for at least a decade. In the paper's final section, I analyze several features of the child care market that may have implications for prices, including the demand for child care, the skill-level of the child care workforce, and state regulations. A few findings are noteworthy. First, I show that child care demand stagnated around the same time that market prices leveled-off. Second, although the skill-level of the child care workforce increased in absolute terms, highly-educated women increasingly find child care employment less attractive than other occupations. Finally, child care regulations have not systematically increased in stringency, and they appear to have small and inconsistent effects on market prices. Together, these results indicate that the production of child care has not become more costly, which may explain the recent stagnation in market prices.
    Keywords: child care costs, child care demand, child care regulations, parental employment
    JEL: I28 J01 J08 J20
    Date: 2015–05
  12. By: Ali,Rubaba; Barra,Alvaro Federico; Berg,Claudia N.; Damania,Richard; Nash,John D.; Russ,Jason Daniel
    Abstract: Transport infrastructure is deemed to be central to development and consumes a large fraction of the development assistance envelope. Yet there is debate about the economic impact of road projects. This paper proposes an approach to assess the differential development impacts of alternative road construction and prioritize various proposals, using Nigeria as a case study. Recognizing that there is no perfect measure of economic well-being, a variety of outcome metrics are used, including crop revenue, livestock revenue, non-agricultural income, the probability of being multi-dimensionally poor, and local gross domestic product for Nigeria. Although the measure of transport is the most accurate possible, it is still endogenous because of the nonrandom placement of road infrastructure. This endogeneity is addressed using a seemingly novel instrumental variable termed the natural path: the time it would take to walk along the most logical route connecting two points without taking into account other, bias-causing economic benefits. Further, the analysis considers the potential endogeneity from nonrandom placement of households and markets through carefully chosen control variables. It finds that reducing transportation costs in Nigeria will increase crop revenue, non-agricultural income, the wealth index, and local gross domestic product. Livestock sales increase as well, although this finding is less robust. The probability of being multi-dimensionally poor will decrease. The results also cast light on income diversification and structural changes that may arise. These findings are robust to relaxing the exclusion restriction. The paper also demonstrates how to prioritize alternative road programs by comparing the expected development impacts of alternative New Partnership for Africa's Development projects.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Roads and Highways Performance,Rural Roads&Transport,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Banks&Banking Reform
    Date: 2015–05–18
  13. By: Matthew E. Kahn; Kyle Barron
    Abstract: The expansion of access to publicly provided pre-kindergarten bundles together redistribution to the poor with an early human capital investment. Financing publicly provided pre-K investment is mainly a state and local issue. Which voters favor local pre-K expansion? This paper uses several new data sets to describe the circumstances such that local voters reveal a willingness to spend on an early intervention that may not yield direct benefits for them. Republican voters consistently oppose the expansion of publicly provided pre-K. Suburban voters also tend to oppose such investment. We explore several possible explanations for these facts.
    JEL: H41 H72 R2
    Date: 2015–05
  14. By: Margit Molnar; Vincent Koen
    Abstract: China has made impressive strides in education in recent decades, even though the accumulation of human capital has lagged behind that of physical capital. Going forward, access to and quality of education will be key to sustain economic convergence with the most advanced economies and to offset the drag exerted by population ageing. This will require addressing a number of problems. Access to pre-school education is still far from universal. Migrants’ children as well as rural and poor families are still at a major disadvantage at every step of the education ladder. The focus on rote learning and exams remains excessive. More bridges are needed between vocational and general education. Graduating students often struggle to find a job matching their expectations and employers do not always find the requisite skills. Despite a soaring number of Chinese patents, the quality of most patents is still low and innovation output is weak. Reforms are underway to address these problems but further progress is needed in various areas against the backdrop of rapidly evolving market demands and the development of the knowledge economy. Among the priorities are more and better oriented funding of education, giving greater opportunities to children with a socio-economic or physical disadvantage, reducing the role of after-school tutoring, focusing less on memorisation and more on creativity, enhancing the appeal of the teaching profession, improving students’ information on labour market prospects, developing workplace training, making greater use of online education potential, and more effectively nurturing research and innovation. This Working Paper relates to the 2015 OECD Economic Survey of China<P>Donner à tous des compétences adéquates en Chine : Du “fabriqué en Chine” au “créé en Chine”<BR>La Chine a fait ces dernières décennies des progrès impressionnants dans le domaine de l’éducation, même si l’accumulation de capital humain y a été moins rapide que l’accumulation de capital physique. À l’avenir, l’accès à l’éducation et la qualité de celle-ci seront déterminants pour favoriser la convergence économique avec les économies les plus avancées et compenser l’effet du vieillissement de la population. Il faudra pour cela s’atteler à la résolution d’un certain nombre de problèmes. Ainsi, l’accès à l’éducation préscolaire est encore loin d’être universel. À tous les échelons du système éducatif, les enfants de migrants, ainsi que les familles pauvres ou vivant en milieu rural, restent très désavantagés. L'importance donnée à l'apprentissage par coeur et aux examens reste excessive. Il faudrait aussi instaurer des passerelles plus nombreuses entre la formation professionnelle et l'enseignement général. Les étudiants diplômés ont souvent du mal à trouver un emploi correspondant à leurs attentes et les employeurs, pour leur part, ne trouvent pas toujours des candidats ayant les compétences requises. Malgré l'explosion du nombre des brevets chinois, la qualité de la majorité d'entre eux reste faible et les résultats en matière d'innovation sont modestes. Des réformes sont en cours pour s'attaquer à ces problèmes, mais les progrès doivent se poursuivre dans divers domaines, dans un contexte marqué par l'évolution rapide des exigences des marchés et le développement de l'économie de la connaissance. Les mesures à prendre en priorité doivent viser à mieux cibler et à accroître le financement de l'éducation, donner des chances plus importantes aux enfants issus de milieux socio-économiques défavorisés ou handicapés, réduire le rôle du soutien périscolaire, mettre moins l'accent sur la mémorisation et miser davantage sur la créativité, rendre la profession d'enseignant plus attrayante, améliorer l'information des étudiants sur les perspectives offertes par le marché du travail, développer la formation en entreprise, exploiter davantage les possibilités offertes par l'éducation en ligne, et promouvoir de manière plus efficace la recherche et l'innovation. Ce Document de travail a trait à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de la Chine, 2015 que-chine.htm
    Keywords: human capital, education, innovation, China, vocational training, education inequalities, skill mismatch, migrant children, enfants de migrants, capital humain, formation professionnelle, Chine, inadéquation des compétences, inégalités d'éducation, innovation, éducation
    JEL: H52 I00 I20 I21 I22 I23 I24 I25 I28 J24 O O30 O31
    Date: 2015–05–22
  15. By: Marinescu, Ioana E. (Harris School, University of Chicago); Triyana, Margaret (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
    Abstract: What are the sources of wage growth in developing countries? In the US, general labor market experience is the key source of wage growth, with job seniority playing a smaller role. By contrast, in Indonesia, the 10-year return to seniority is 24 to 29%, which is higher than the return to experience. Furthermore, we estimate a 35% return to ten years of tenure in the formal sector, with no significant return to tenure in the informal sector. The difference in the sources of wage growth in Indonesia versus the US may be a reflection of Indonesia's lower level of development.
    Keywords: experience, formality, informality, wages, tenure
    JEL: J31 O1
    Date: 2015–05
  16. By: Joseph E. Stiglitz
    Abstract: The paper identifies, and then resolves, a number of seeming puzzles in a newly identified set of stylized facts entailing movements in factor returns and shares and the wealth-income ratio. Standard data on savings cannot be reconciled with the increase in the wealth-income ratio: there is a wealth residual. An important component of this is associated with rents: land rents, exploitation rents, and returns on intellectual property. Nor can these stylized facts be reconciled with a standard neoclassical model, focusing on labor and capital, even taking into account technological change (including skill-biased technological change), with appropriately defined aggregates. Explaining why the concepts of “capital” and “wealth” are distinct, we show that appropriately defined aggregates for wealth may be (and in the case of some countries appear to be) moving in opposite directions. We identify some of the factors that may have contributed to the increase in rents and the divergence between wealth and capital. Subsequent Parts of this paper will investigate some of these factors in detail and relate them to changes in inequality.
    JEL: D31 E21 E22
    Date: 2015–05
  17. By: Margit Molnar; Boqing Wang; Ruidong Gao
    Abstract: In recent years, many tertiary graduates have had difficulties finding a job, while factories have been struggling to recruit workers. Notwithstanding rapidly increasing education attainment, graduates’ skills do not seem to match those demanded by the market. Moreover, structural changes in the economy aggravate the shortage of skills in newly emerging industries. While the problem is widely recognised, empirical studies of the issue are scarce and the skills gap has not been quantified. This paper aims at gaging the skills and knowledge gap of tertiary graduates of universities and vocational colleges across China. It also looks at the employment and wage prospects of graduates with different educational backgrounds. Inequalities in educational opportunities, stemming in particular from the urban-rural divide and to a lesser extent from the social background, shape careers and lives. The best primary and middle schools are located in the biggest cities and until recently children competed for a place at such schools. In third and fourth-tier cities or in rural areas, in contrast, there are fewer choices and thus less chance to get into a “model” high school or a top university. The family background also tends to have an impact on the choice of a school or profession and on future earnings. This paper discusses various aspects of inequalities related to the place of upbringing, family background and geographical area. Micro-level data analysis is complemented by an investigation into inequalities of various aspects of education at the city and county levels. This Working Paper relates to the 2015 OECD Economic Survey of China<P>Évaluation du déficit de qualifications en Chine et inégalités du système éducatif<BR>Depuis quelques années, de nombreux diplômés de l’enseignement supérieur éprouvent des difficultés à trouver un emploi tandis que les usines peinent à recruter de la main-d’oeuvre. En dépit d’un relèvement rapide des niveaux d’instruction, il ne semble pas que les qualifications des diplômés correspondent aux besoins du marché. Qui plus est, les mutations structurelles de l’économie aggravent le déficit de qualifications dans les industries nouvelles qui voient le jour. Si le problème est largement admis, les études empiriques sur le sujet ne sont pas légion et le déficit de qualifications n’a pas été quantifié. Ce document de travail a pour but d’évaluer le déficit de qualifications et de connaissances des diplômés des universités et des instituts professionnels de l’enseignement supérieur en Chine. Il examine également les perspectives d’emploi et de rémunération des diplômés issus de différentes filières de formation. Les vies et les carrières en Chine sont le reflet des inégalités d’accès au système éducatif, qui découlent notamment de la fracture entre les zones urbaines et rurales, mais aussi, dans une moindre mesure, de l’origine sociale. Les meilleurs établissements d’enseignement primaire et secondaire (collèges) se situent dans les plus grandes villes du pays et il y peu de temps encore, la concurrence était âpre pour s’y inscrire. En revanche, dans les villes de troisième et quatrième rangs, ou dans les zones rurales, l’offre est moins abondante et les chances d’intégrer un lycée « modèle » ou une université réputée sont d’autant plus réduites. Le milieu familial tend également à avoir un impact sur le choix d’une école ou d’une profession et sur la rémunération future. Ce document de travail examine ces inégalités sous l’angle du lieu d’éducation, de l’origine familiale et de la zone géographique des élèves. Un examen des inégalités de divers aspects du système éducatif, au niveau des villes et des comtés, complète l’analyse des micro-données. Ce document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de la Chine, OCDE, 2015 que-chine.htm.
    Keywords: skills mismatch, vocational college, educational opportunity, family background, China, government spending, inequality, urban-rural divide, university graduates, fracture entre zones urbaines et rurales, inégalité, dépense publique, Chine, déficit de qualifications, diplômés des universités, instituts professionnels, accès au système éducatif, milieu familial
    JEL: H52 I23 I24 J24
    Date: 2015–05–22

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