nep-law New Economics Papers
on Law and Economics
Issue of 2022‒10‒17
nine papers chosen by
Eve-Angeline Lambert, Université de Lorraine

  1. Platform Liability and Innovation By Doh-Shin Jeon; Yassine Lefouili; Leonardo Madio
  2. Antitrust and Digital Platforms By World Bank
  3. Patenting Inventions or Inventing Patents? Continuation Practice at the USPTO By Cesare Righi; Timothy Simcoe
  4. Compliance Behavior under Surveillance: Introduction of the Video Assistant Referee to European Football By Ivan Trestcov
  5. Documenting Inter-personal Conflicts in Senegal during the First Quarter the 20th Century using Dispute Registries from native courts By Marazyan, Karine
  6. The social consequences of organized crime in Italy By Pierfrancesco Rolla; Patricia Justino
  7. Understanding Labor Market Discrimination against Transgender People: Evidence from a Double List Experiment and a Survey By Aksoy, Billur; Carpenter, Christopher S.; Sansone, Dario
  8. Regulatory disciplines on the mobility of service professionals: Lessons from Regional Trade Agreements By Carzaniga, Antonia Giulia; Sharma, Swati
  9. Parental Leave Benefits and Child Penalties By Sevrin Waights

  1. By: Doh-Shin Jeon (Toulouse School of Economics, University of Toulouse Capitole and CEPR); Yassine Lefouili (Toulouse School of Economics, University of Toulouse Capitole); Leonardo Madio (Department of economics and management †Marco Fanno†, University of Padova and CESifo)
    Abstract: We study a platformâs incentives to delist IP-infringing products and the effects of holding the platform liable for the presence of such products on innovation and consumer welfare. For a given number of buyers, platform liability increases innovation by reducing the competitive pressure faced by innovative products. However, there can be a misalignment of interests between innovators and buyers. Furthermore, platform liability can have unintended consequences, which overturn the intended effect on innovation. Platform liability tends to increase (decrease) innovation and consumer welfare when the elasticity of participation of innovators is high (low) and that of buyers is low (high).
    Keywords: platform, liability, intellectual property, innovation
    JEL: K40 K42 K13 L13 L22 L86
    Date: 2022–09
  2. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies - Digital Divide Law and Development - Private Sector Development Law Private Sector Development - Competitiveness and Competition Policy Private Sector Development - E-Business Private Sector Development - Legal Regulation and Business Environment
    Date: 2021–09
  3. By: Cesare Righi; Timothy Simcoe
    Abstract: Continuations allow inventors to add new claims to old patents, leading to concerns about inadvertent infringement and holdup. We study the use of continuations to obtain standard essential patents (SEPs), a setting where patents are easily linked to possibly infringing technology. Continuation filings increase after standard publication. This effect is larger when patent examiners are more lenient, and for applicants with licensing-based business models. Claims of SEPs also become more similar after standard publication, and late claiming is positively correlated with litigation. Our findings suggest widespread use of continuations to \invent patents" that are infringed by already-published standards.
    Keywords: patents, standards, standard essential patents, continuations
    JEL: K11 L15 O34 O38
    Date: 2022–02
  4. By: Ivan Trestcov
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of introducing the Video Assistant Referee (VAR) to European football. First, the setting allows for decomposition of the deterrence and monitoring effects in Becker’s (1968) model of crime. Second, I estimate the deterrence effect’s spillover outside the surveillance environment. Third, I find evidence of a much under-studied learning-by-punishment effect. This paper applies the difference-in-difference strategy to show that the introduction of VAR causes a significant decrease in the number of fouls in two German football leagues. VAR had an immediate impact on severe fouls, while the effect on penalty fouls is apparent after a 12 week adjustment period. Punishment intensifies the deterrence effect as punished players commit even fewer fouls than unpunished players. Moreover, the deterrence effect persists outside of the surveillance environment, i.e., there is a spillover effect on international competitions. I show that players from countries with VAR commit fewer fouls in international competitions than other players.
    Keywords: Becker Model; Video Assistant Referee; Deterrence; European Football; Spillover; Learning-by-Punishment;
    Date: 2022–08
  5. By: Marazyan, Karine
    Abstract: In the early 20th century, new litigation bodies, the so-called 'native courts', were created and managed by the French colonial administration to regulate relations between native people. The monitoring of court activity has generated high-frequency litigation data. Such data provide a unique opportunity to document interpersonal conflict in a context of colonial rule that is undergoing rapid transformation. This paper has three objectives: (i) describe the institutional framework allowing for the emergence of the data on which this research is based --Les Etats Récapitulatifs--; (ii) detail our method to compile time series of disputes arbitrated by native courts; (iii) describe certain trends in the dynamics of disputes arbitrated by native courts. We conclude by discussing how this database could be used to better understand the economic and political roots of interpersonal conflict.
    Keywords: conflict, justice, history of colonial institutions
    Date: 2022–09
  6. By: Pierfrancesco Rolla; Patricia Justino
    Abstract: Organized crime affects security, development, and democracy worldwide, but not much is known about its social consequences. We study how exposure to the presence of organized crime groups shapes the social capital of Italian citizens, including political participation, civic engagement, and institutional and interpersonal trust. To address this question, we first leverage a survey of almost 800,000 respondents on social capital and exposure to organized crime conducted in Italy between 2000 and 2018.
    Keywords: Crime, Social capital, Italy
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Aksoy, Billur (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute); Carpenter, Christopher S. (Vanderbilt University); Sansone, Dario (University of Exeter)
    Abstract: Using a US nationally representative sample and a double list experiment designed to elicit views free from social desirability bias, we find that anti-transgender labor market attitudes are significantly underreported. After correcting for this concealment, we report that 73 percent of people would be comfortable with a transgender manager and 74 percent support employment non-discrimination protection for transgender people. We also show that respondents severely underestimate the population level of support for transgender individuals in the workplace, and we find that labor market support for transgender people is significantly lower than support for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people. Our results provide timely evidence on workplace-related views toward transgender people and help us better understand employment discrimination against them.
    Keywords: labor market discrimination, transgender people, double list experiment
    JEL: C90 J15 J71 K31
    Date: 2022–09
  8. By: Carzaniga, Antonia Giulia; Sharma, Swati
    Abstract: When it comes to services traded through the international movement of individuals (mode 4), Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) have increasingly adopted trade-facilitating disciplines that both build upon and innovate the GATS framework. By analysing relevant provisions of RTAs, we are able to identify trends and commonalities in approach. We find that mode 4 RTA disciplines address mostly aspects related to transparency and application procedures. With the exception of low-income economies, these provisions have been adopted in RTAs concluded by WTO Members across all income levels and all geographic regions, albeit with differing intensity. This points to the potential for some of the improvements and innovations captured in RTAs to be considered in a wider, possibly multilateral, context.
    Keywords: temporary movement of natural persons,GATS mode 4,Regional Trade Agreements,regulatory disciplines
    JEL: F13 F15 F22 L8 K33
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Sevrin Waights
    Abstract: I use the universe of tax returns in Germany and a regression kink design to estimate the impact of the benefit amount available to high-earning women after their first childbirth on subsequent within-couple earnings inequality. Lower benefit amounts result in a reduced earnings gap that persists beyond the benefit period for at least nine years after the birth. The longer-term impacts are driven by couples where the mother earned more than the father pre-birth. Simulations suggest it would take a 50% reduction in the benefit amount to completely eliminate long-run child penalties for sample couples. Lower benefits also reduce take-up of paid leave by mothers, lower the chances of having further children, and have no impact on marital stability.
    Keywords: Child penalties, gender inequality in earnings, social norms, parental leave policy, regression kink design
    JEL: D63 H31 J13 J16 K31 M52 Z13
    Date: 2022

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