nep-law New Economics Papers
on Law and Economics
Issue of 2021‒12‒06
nine papers chosen by
Eve-Angeline Lambert, Université de Lorraine

  1. Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Pollution on Crime: Evidence from 1970 Clean Air Act By Sadana, Divya
  2. Who Watches the Watchmen? Local News and Police Behavior in the United States By Nicola Mastrorocco; Arianna Ornaghi
  3. American Hate Crime Trends Prediction with Event Extraction By Songqiao Han; Hailiang Huang; Jiangwei Liu; Shengsheng Xiao
  4. Restructuring and Insolvency in Europe: Policy Options in the Implementation of the EU Directive By Jose M Garrido; Ms. Chanda M DeLong; Amira Rasekh; Anjum Rosha
  5. The Rise and Fall of Social Democracy, 1918-2017 By Nicola Mastrorocco; Simon Hix; Giacomo Benedetto
  7. Is the patent system a level playing field? The effect of patent attorney firms By Gaetan de Rassenfosse; Paul Jensen; T'Mir Julius; Alfons Palangkaraya; Elizabeth Webster
  8. Understanding the Role of Perceived Land Rights in the Formation of Farmers’ Intentions: Evidence from Central Asia By Akhmadiyeva, Zarema; Herzfeld, Thomas
  9. Human development and governance in Africa: do good fences make good neighbours? By Asongu, Simplice; Diop, Samba

  1. By: Sadana, Divya
    Abstract: Past literature has shown that 1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) led to significant reduction in air pollution early 1970s, and that it had positive infant health consequences for the cohorts treated by CAA. Because effects of in-utero and early childhood conditions are persistent, and the health effects can remain latent for years, CAA may impact the future adult outcomes. In this paper, I investigate the impact of the CAA on the future crime. In a difference-in-differences framework, I find that the cohorts that were born in the year of the CAA’s first implementation commit fewer crimes 15 to 24 years later. The magnitude of this impact is about 4 percent. Property crimes rather than violent crimes are impacted. I also estimate that CAA reduced the ambient air pollution by 14 percent. These reduced form estimates suggest that a one percent reduction in air pollution reduces future crime rate by 0.3 percent.
    Keywords: Pollution, Crime, Birthweight, Education, Employment Status, Earnings
    JEL: I15 I25 J24 K14 K42 Q53
    Date: 2021–03
  2. By: Nicola Mastrorocco (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin); Arianna Ornaghi (Department of Economics, University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Do the police respond to media coverage of crime? In this paper, we study how a decline in news coverage of local crime affects municipal police departments in the United States. Exogenous variation in local news is from acquisitions of local TV stations by a large broadcast group, Sinclair. To control for other content changes that might be induced by Sinclair but are not municipality-specific, we implement a triple differences-in-differences design that interacts the timing of the acquisitions with an indicator for whether the municipality is covered by the news at baseline, a proxy for exposure to the local news shock. Using a unique dataset of almost 300,000 newscasts, we show that stations that are acquired by Sinclair decrease their coverage of local crime. This matters for policing: after Sinclair enters a media market, covered municipalities experience 10% lower violent crime clearance rates relative to non- covered municipalities. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that the effect is consistent with a decrease in the salience of crime in the public opinion.
    Keywords: Media, accountability, police
    JEL: D72 D83 K42 L82
    Date: 2020–02
  3. By: Songqiao Han; Hailiang Huang; Jiangwei Liu; Shengsheng Xiao
    Abstract: Social media platforms may provide potential space for discourses that contain hate speech, and even worse, can act as a propagation mechanism for hate crimes. The FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program collects hate crime data and releases statistic report yearly. These statistics provide information in determining national hate crime trends. The statistics can also provide valuable holistic and strategic insight for law enforcement agencies or justify lawmakers for specific legislation. However, the reports are mostly released next year and lag behind many immediate needs. Recent research mainly focuses on hate speech detection in social media text or empirical studies on the impact of a confirmed crime. This paper proposes a framework that first utilizes text mining techniques to extract hate crime events from New York Times news, then uses the results to facilitate predicting American national-level and state-level hate crime trends. Experimental results show that our method can significantly enhance the prediction performance compared with time series or regression methods without event-related factors. Our framework broadens the methods of national-level and state-level hate crime trends prediction.
    Date: 2021–11
  4. By: Jose M Garrido; Ms. Chanda M DeLong; Amira Rasekh; Anjum Rosha
    Abstract: The Directive on Restructuring and Insolvency sets minimum standards for restructuring and certain insolvency matters, but its harmonization effect will be limited given multiple options for implementation, likely leading to divergent restructuring models in Europe. These options reveal different policy approaches to the regulation of restructuring and insolvency. The analysis in this paper aims to illustrate the breadth of the policy choices and their consequences for restructuring activity. States should carefully design restructuring procedures to avoid the negative economic effects of certain options that could undermine creditors’ rights or result in unpredictable outcomes, particularly in cross-border cases.
    Keywords: restructuring, insolvency, European countries; EU Directive; policy option; insolvency in Europe; policy choice; implementation option; Solvency; Early warning systems; Corporate insolvency; Data collection; Europe
    Date: 2021–05–27
  5. By: Nicola Mastrorocco (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin); Simon Hix (London School of Economics); Giacomo Benedetto (Royal Holloway London)
    Abstract: We describe the electoral history of one of Europe's most successful party families over the past 100 years in 31 countries. With a unique and newly collected dataset of national election results, and a large number of economic and social variables measured for each country-election observation, we find that two main factors drive the electoral performance of social democratic parties: public sector spending, and the size of the manufacturing sector. We investigate these results further with an analysis of individual-level voting behaviour, using the European Social Surveys from 2002 to 2016. Together, our findings suggest that most of the fall in support for social democratic parties in recent years is correlated with a decline in the number of industrial workers as well as a reduction in the propensity of social democratic parties' core supporters (industrial workers and public sector employees) to vote for them.
    Keywords: Social Democracy, Elections, Political economy
    JEL: K42 H72
    Date: 2019–12
  6. By: Aneesh V. Pillai (CUSAT - Cochin University of Science and Technology); Anatoliy Kostruba (Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University)
    Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of nature and role of individual's reproductive rights in the system of private moral right. The purpose of the contribution is to study the legal regulation of reproductive rights of women in India and Ukraine and analyse the features of some reproductive rights, which are carried out with the help of assisted reproductive technologies with an emphasis on issues related to surrogacy, case law on this issue. Research methods. The paper is executed by applying the general research and special methods of scientific cognition. Results. Reproductive rights generally mean the right of an individual to control the process of reproduction. It includes the right to decide whether to have or not to have a child, the number and spacing of children; access to reproductive services etc. Considering the importance of human reproduction, the reproductive rights are declared as fundamental human rights. However, at the international and national levels, there is no a single document which explains the scope of reproductive rights. In the absence of such a document, the reproductive rights raise several questions. For example, the scope of this right to an aged or disabled person or a transgender or a prisoner etc. is a million-dollar question which does not have a specific answer. Since the women's empowerment includes women's reproductive empowerment, a clear and reasonable answer is required for achieving the aim of reproductive empowerment. A detailed examination of legal frameworks both at international and national levels is necessary to answer these questions. Conclusions. Scientific positions on reproductive rights are substantiated. It is emphasized that reproductive rights are the rights of the latest, fourth generation of human rights, and are derived from personal rights. It is noted that human reproductive rights are both natural and those that are carried out with the use of assistive technologies. The article deals with the basic types of reproductive rights, including the right to artificial insemination, surrogacy, sterilization, prevention and treatment of infertility, abortion, organ donation and reproductive cells, the use of contraception, the right to reproductive choice, the right to reproductive health, right to information about reproductive rights, the right to privacy to implement reproductive rights and others. The necessity of adopting the special legislative act in the sphere of reproductive rights and reproductive health is grounded.
    Keywords: reproductive rights,personal rights,personality,medical law,human rights,right to privacy,abortion,sterilization,assisted reproductive technologies,surrogacy,artificial insemination,medical tourism,Kostruba,Civil law
    Date: 2021–09–10
  7. By: Gaetan de Rassenfosse (Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne); Paul Jensen (University of Melbourne); T'Mir Julius (University of Melbourne); Alfons Palangkaraya (Swinburne University of Technology); Elizabeth Webster (Swinburne University of Technology)
    Abstract: The patent system underpins the business model of some of the fastest-growing companies. Used appropriately, it should support frontier technologies and nurture new firms. Used perniciously, it can stifle innovation and protect established technological behemoths. We analyse patent examination decisions at the American, European, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese patent offices and find evidence that patent attorney firms have a surprisingly large role in the patent system. Patent attorney firm quality is most important, vis-Ã -vis invention quality, in less codified and more rapidly changing technology areas such as software and ICT. Moreover, patent attorney firm quality matters more when invention quality is low. Finally, there is a significant inter-patent office variation, with a greater patent attorney firm quality effect at the USPTO.
    Keywords: appropriation; innovation; patent attorney firm; patent system
    JEL: K20 L43 O34
    Date: 2021–11
  8. By: Akhmadiyeva, Zarema; Herzfeld, Thomas
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–08
  9. By: Asongu, Simplice; Diop, Samba
    Abstract: In this paper, we revisit the relationship between governance and human development in Africa during the period 2010-2019 taking into account the existence of spatial dependence and controlling the endogeneity problem through a Generalized Spatial Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS). The exploratory spatial data analysis reveals the existence of spatial dependence of human development and governance quality. Our empirical findings support that in Africa, “good fences make good neighbours” or proximity matters in the distribution of human development. Implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Governance, human development, Africa
    JEL: D31 I10 I32 K40 O55
    Date: 2021–01

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