nep-law New Economics Papers
on Law and Economics
Issue of 2019‒02‒11
twelve papers chosen by
Eve-Angeline Lambert, Université de Lorraine

  1. Effect of Enforcement Shock on Pushers' Activities: Evidence from an Asian Drug-Selling Gang By Leong, Kaiwen; Li, Huailu; Xu, Haibo
  2. The transformations of conventions for patent use and the role of legal intermediaries By Christian Bessy
  3. Technology and persistence in global software piracy By Asongu, Simplice; Meniago, Christelle
  4. Women Officers, Gender Violence and Human Capital: Evidence from Women's Justice Centers in Peru By Guadalupe Kavanaugh; Maria Sviatschi; Iva Trako
  5. Exploring the Policy Implications of High†Profile Police Violence By Johanna Lacoe; Jillian Stein
  6. Lost Boys: Access to Secondary Education and Crime By Huttunen, Kristiina; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Uusitalo, Roope; Virtanen, Hanna
  7. The Consequences of Extending Equitable Property Division Divorce Laws to Cohabitants By Chigavazira, Abraham; Fisher, Hayley; Robinson, Tim; Zhu, Anna
  8. Crime Victimisation Over Time and Sleep Quality By Andrew E. Clark; Conchita D'Ambrosio; Rong Zhu
  9. Scaring or Scarring? Labour Market Effects of Criminal Victimisation By Bindler, Anna; Ketel, Nadine
  10. “To destroy the settlement of estate”? the Glorious Revolution and estate acts of parliament, 1660–1702 By Kara Dimitruk
  11. Does occupational deregulation affect in-company vocational training? – Evidence from the 2004 Reform of the German Trade and Crafts Code By Runst, Petrik; Thomä, Jörg
  12. Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings in the European Union – An Exploratory Analysis of Cross-Country Consumption Patterns By Thonipara, Anita; Runst, Petrik; Ochsner, Christian; Bizer, Kilian

  1. By: Leong, Kaiwen (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore); Li, Huailu (Fundan University); Xu, Haibo (Fudan University, China)
    Abstract: We study a Singaporean drug-selling gang's dataset and empirically find that the gang's pushers purchased larger quantities of drugs during periods of enforcement shocks caused by enforcement activities targeting the gang's drug supply chain. This counter-intuitive finding can be explained by the pushers' profit targeting behavior. Given that enforcement shocks increased the pushers' cost of drugs, pushers must compensate by purchasing more drugs to sell in order to reach their profit targets.
    Keywords: crime, enforcement, labor supply
    JEL: K42
    Date: 2019–01
  2. By: Christian Bessy (IDHES - Institutions et Dynamiques Historiques de l'Économie et de la Société - ENS Cachan - École normale supérieure - Cachan - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Today, the patent system is facing a paradox. It has never been so successful, yet at the same time it has attracted severe criticism, such as the call to return to the "commons". This article argues that the success of the patent at the 'macro' level is linked to the proliferation of the ways it is used at the ‘micro' level: as a tool for the protection and diffusion of innovations, as an instrument of market power and technological valorisation, as a signal and instrument of negotiation, as a valuable corporate asset. These uses would somehow be superimposed since the genesis of the patent system, without cancelling the previous ones. This article proposes an analysis of the contemporary evolution of this legal institution by distinguishing different conventions for patent use as well as legal intermediaries which contribute to their definition, diffusion, and transformation, in particular patent attorneys. Although this explanatory outline draws mainly on the case of France, it can be extended to other countries.
    Keywords: K49-Legal procedure (other),L15-Information and product quality,O34-Intellectual property rights,JEL: O31-Innovation and invention: processes and incentives
    Date: 2019–01–22
  3. By: Asongu, Simplice; Meniago, Christelle
    Abstract: This study examines the persistence of software piracy with internet penetration vis-à-vis of PC users, conditional on Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) institutions. The empirical evidence is based on a panel of 99 countries for the period 1994-2010 and the Generalised Method of Moments. The main finding is that, compared to internet penetration, PC usage is more responsible for the persistence of global software piracy. Knowing how technology affects the persistence of piracy is important because it enables more targeted policy initiatives. We show that the sensitivity of software piracy to IPRs mechanisms is contingent on the specific technology channels through which the pirated software is consumed.
    Keywords: Piracy; Business Software; Software piracy; Intellectual Property Rights
    JEL: F42 K42 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2018–01
  4. By: Guadalupe Kavanaugh (RUTGERS - Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey [New Brunswick]); Maria Sviatschi (Princeton University); Iva Trako (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Many developing countries have unequal access to justice, especially for women. What are the implications for gender-based violence, intra-household bargaining and investments in children? This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on all-women's justice centers (WJCs) a community based approach aimed at reducing violence against women in Peru. WJCs are specialized institutions that mostly employ female officers and whose main purpose is to reduce gender-based violence by providing police and legal services. We examine the gradual rollout of these centers and using complaint police data we find that as victims trust women officers more, they increase the reporting of gender-specific crimes by 40%. We also find evidence that this led to the deterrence of gender-based violence: using administrative non-reported data from health providers and district attorney offices, we find a 10% reduction in domestic violence, female deaths due to aggression, femicides and mental health problems with no effects for men and non-gender specific crimes. We argue that these results are driven by an increase in women representation in law and enforcement at the WJCs. Moreover, we find inter-generational effects: WJCs substantially increase human capital investments in children, increasing enrollment, attendance, test scores, while decreasing child labor. These results are consistent with a bargaining model in which the threat point is determined by women representation in law and enforcement. In sum, the evidence in this paper implies that providing access to justice for women is not only important for addressing gender-based violence, but also generates inter-generational benefits.
    Keywords: gender-based violence,access to justice,children,household bargaining
    Date: 2018–06
  5. By: Johanna Lacoe; Jillian Stein
    Abstract: High-profile incidents of police violence can translate into shifts in public perceptions of police and behavior. For example, sense of obligation to obey the law, perceived trustworthiness of the police, and perceptions of procedural justice can change.
    Keywords: Criminal justice, policing, police violence
  6. By: Huttunen, Kristiina (VATT, Helsinki); Pekkarinen, Tuomas (VATT, Helsinki); Uusitalo, Roope (University of Jyväskylä); Virtanen, Hanna (ETLA - The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy)
    Abstract: We study the effect of post-compulsory education on crime by exploiting a regression discontinuity design generated by admission cut-offs to upper secondary schools in Finland. We combine data on school applications with data on criminal convictions and follow individuals for 10 years. Our results show that successful applicants are less likely to commit crimes during the first five years after admission. Crime is reduced both during and outside the school year, indicating that the channel through which schooling affects crime cannot be explained by incapacitation alone. We find no effect on crime committed after 6 years from admission.
    Keywords: crime, education, school admission, incapacitation, human capital
    JEL: K42 I2
    Date: 2019–01
  7. By: Chigavazira, Abraham; Fisher, Hayley; Robinson, Tim; Zhu, Anna
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of extending equitable property division divorce laws to unmarried cohabiting couples in Australia. Using a triple-difference fi xed effects approach we show that existing couples are more likely to make relationship-specific investments after being exposed to laws enabling the equitable redistribution of property in the event of relationship breakdown. In affected couples we fi nd that men increase their employment and women increase time spent on housework. Couples have more children and are more likely to become home owners. These results demonstrate the causal effect of property division laws on relationship-specifi c investments and inform the ongoing international debate about the appropriate legal treatment of unmarried cohabiting couples.
    Date: 2019–01
  8. By: Andrew E. Clark (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Conchita D'Ambrosio ( - Université du Luxembourg); Rong Zhu (Flinders University)
    Abstract: We here consider the relationship between the individual time profile of crime victimisation and sleep quality. Sleep quality worsens with contemporaneous crime victimisation, with physical violence having a larger effect than property crime. But crime history also matters, and past victimisation experience continues to reduce current sleep quality. Last, there is some evidence that the order of victimisation spells plays a role: consecutive years of crime victimisation affect sleep quality more adversely than the same number of years when not contiguous.
    Keywords: Sleep quality,Property crimes,Crime,Time,Physical violence
    Date: 2019–01
  9. By: Bindler, Anna (University of Gothenburg); Ketel, Nadine (University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: Little is known about the costs of crime to victims and their families. In this paper, we use unique and detailed register data on victimisations and labour market outcomes from the Netherlands to overcome data restrictions previously met in the literature and estimate event-study designs to assess the short- and long-term effects of criminal victimisation. Our results show significant decreases in earnings (6.6-9.3%) and increases in the days of benefit receipt (10.4-14.7%) which are lasting up to eight years after victimisation. We find shorter-lived responses in health expenditure. Additional analyses suggest that the victimisation can be interpreted as an escalation point, potentially triggering subsequent adverse life-events which contribute to its persistent impact. Heterogeneity analyses show that the effects are slightly larger for males regarding earnings and significantly larger for females regarding benefits. These differences appear to be largely (but not completely) driven by different offence characteristics. Lastly, we investigate spill-over effects on nonvictimised partners and find evidence for a spill-over effect of violent threat on the partner's earnings.
    Keywords: crime, victimisation, labour market outcomes, event-study design
    JEL: K4 J01 J12 I1
    Date: 2019–01
  10. By: Kara Dimitruk (Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: This article sheds light on the way the Glorious Revolution of 1688 in England affected property rights to land. From 1660 to 1702, the bulk of parliament’s legislative work was on estate acts that reorganized families’ rights to land use. Using a random sample of 65 estate acts, the article finds that the Revolution broadened political access to parliament. I show acts were primarily for members of parliament and their families, but new acts after 1688 had secondary connections to MPs as trustees. It also finds that the composition of the acts changed after the Revolution because landholders sought to break strict settlements, a new form of property conveyance. The findings establish the place of estate acts in the broad narrative of the Glorious Revolution and help to explain the development of capitalism in England.
    Keywords: property rights, Glorious Revolution, estate acts, strict settlements
    JEL: N43 H10 K11 P14 P16
    Date: 2019
  11. By: Runst, Petrik; Thomä, Jörg
    Abstract: The European Commission actively evaluates occupational entry restrictions in all member states. This has attracted a growing interest among scholars of the German crafts sector as it is governed by an idiosyncratic national set of rules. We estimate the effects of the deregulation of the German Trade and Crafts Code in 2004 on the overall vocational training levels in affected crafts trades. We employ Difference-in-Differences regressions as well as Synthetic Control Methods on data for the entire population of the German crafts sector. We show that the overall effect of the reform on vocational training levels was negative, and is largely driven by the additional costs of obtaining a training license in the deregulated sector.
    Keywords: Regulation,Impact analysis,vocational training,Craftsmanship
    JEL: D45 K20 L51
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Thonipara, Anita; Runst, Petrik; Ochsner, Christian; Bizer, Kilian
    Abstract: Despite a common EU directive on energy efficiency in residential buildings, levels of energy efficiency differ vastly across European countries. This article analyses these differences and investigates the effectiveness of different energy efficiency policies in place in those countries. We firstly use panel data to explain average yearly energy consumption per dwelling and country by observable characteristics such as climatic conditions, energy prices, income, and floor area. We then use the unexplained variation by sorting between-country differences as well as plotting within-country changes over time to identify better performing countries. These countries are analysed qualitatively in a second step. We conduct expert interviews and examine the legal rules regarding building energy efficiency. Based on our exploratory analysis we generate a number of hypotheses. First, we suggest that regulatory standards, in conjunction with increased construction activity, can be effective in the long run. Second, the results suggest that carbon taxation represents an effective means for energy efficiency.
    Keywords: carbon-taxation,energy efficiency,energy conservation,climate policy,residential buildings
    JEL: H23 K32 Q58
    Date: 2018

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