nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2014‒08‒16
eight papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. What is Behind Latin America’s Declining Income Inequality? By Evridiki Tsounta; Anayochukwu Osueke
  2. Shelter from the Storm: Upgrading Housing Infrastructure in Latin American Slums By Sebastián Galiani; Paul Gertler; Ryan Cooper; Sebastián Martínez; Adam Ross; Raimundo Undurraga
  3. Poverty, inequality and employment in Chile By Gammage, Sarah; Alburquerque, Tomás; Durán, Gonzálo
  4. From Bolsa Família to Brasil Sem Miséria: a Summary of Brazil?sRecent Journey towards Overcoming Extreme Poverty By Luis Henrique Paiva; Tiago Falcão; Letícia Bartholo
  5. Combining Conditional Cash Transfers and Primary Health Care to Reduce Childhood Mortality in Brazil By Davide Rasella; Rômulo Paes-Sousa
  6. New Strategy for Poverty Eradication in Brazil: the Emergence of the Brasil Sem Miséria Plan By Rômulo Paes-Sousa
  7. Latin American Performance to External Shocks: What Has Really Been Sweat? By Pagliacci, Carolina
  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Dengue Risk in Brazil By Paula C. Pereda; Tatiane A. de Menezes; Denisard Alves

  1. By: Evridiki Tsounta; Anayochukwu Osueke
    Abstract: Income inequality in Latin America has declined during the last decade, in contrast to the experience in many other emerging and developed regions. However, Latin America remains the most unequal region in the world. This study documents the declining trend in income inequality in Latin America and proposes various reasons behind this important development. Using a panel econometric analysis for a large group of emerging and developing countries, we find that the Kuznets curve holds. Notwithstanding the limitations in the dataset and of cross-country regression analysis more generally, our results suggest that almost two-thirds of the recent decline in income inequality in Latin America is explained by policies and strong GDP growth, with policies alone explaining more than half of this total decline. Higher education spending is the most important driver, followed by stronger foreign direct investment and higher tax revenues. Results suggest that policies and to some extent positive growth dynamics could play an important role in lowering inequality further.
    Keywords: Income inequality;Latin America;Emerging markets;Developing countries;Social indicators;Cross country analysis;Panel analysis;Income inequality, Latin America, Gini, emerging economies, Kuznets
    Date: 2014–07–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:imf:imfwpa:14/124&r=lam
  2. By: Sebastián Galiani; Paul Gertler; Ryan Cooper; Sebastián Martínez; Adam Ross; Raimundo Undurraga
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence on the causal effects that upgrading slum dwellings has on the living conditions of the extremely poor. In particular, we study the impact of providing better houses in situ to slum dwellers in El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay. We experimentally evaluate the impact of a housing project run by the NGO TECHO which provides basic pre-fabricated houses to members of extremely poor population groups in Latin America. The main objective of the program is to improve household well-being. Our findings show that better houses have a positive effect on overall housing conditions and general well-being: treated households are happier with their quality of life. In two countries, we also document improvements in children's health; in El Salvador, slum dwellers also feel that they are safer. We do not find this result, however, in the other two experimental samples. There are no other noticeable robust effects on the possession of durable goods or in terms of labor outcomes. Our results are robust in terms of both internal and external validity because they are derived from similar experiments in three different Latin American countries.
    Keywords: Health, Housing, Housing infrastructure, Slum dwellers, NGO Techo, Slums
    Date: 2014–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:brikps:85755&r=lam
  3. By: Gammage, Sarah; Alburquerque, Tomás; Durán, Gonzálo
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between labour market institutions, social policy and inequality in Chile from the early 1990s to the late 2000s. The paper analyses levels and changes in poverty as well as wage and income inequality using household and employment survey data and draws some preliminary conclusions about the role of key labour market institutions and policies that have affected the distribution of primary and secondary income over time.
    Keywords: poverty, income distribution, employment, collective bargaining, social protection, Chile, pauvreté, répartition du revenu, emploi, négociation collective, protection sociale, Chili, pobreza, distribución del ingreso, empleo, negociación colectiva, protección social, Chile
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ilo:ilowps:484955&r=lam
  4. By: Luis Henrique Paiva (Ministry of Development and Fight against Hunger, Brazil); Tiago Falcão (Ministry of Development and Fight against Hunger, Brazil); Letícia Bartholo (Ministry of Development and Fight against Hunger, Brazil)
    Abstract: From Bolsa Família to Brasil Sem Miséria: a Summary of Brazil?sRecent Journey towards Overcoming Extreme Poverty
    Date: 2014–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:oparab:228&r=lam
  5. By: Davide Rasella (Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Federal University of Bahia); Rômulo Paes-Sousa (World Centre for Sustainable Development, RIO+ Centre)
    Abstract: Combining Conditional Cash Transfers and Primary Health Care to Reduce Childhood Mortality in Brazil
    Keywords: Combining Conditional Cash Transfers and Primary Health Care to Reduce Childhood Mortality in Brazil
    Date: 2014–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:oparab:242&r=lam
  6. By: Rômulo Paes-Sousa (World Centre for Sustainable Development, RIO+ Centre)
    Abstract: New Strategy for Poverty Eradication in Brazil: the Emergence of the Brasil Sem Miséria Plan
    Date: 2014–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:oparab:214&r=lam
  7. By: Pagliacci, Carolina
    Abstract: How have external shocks affected the LA region? To what extent such shocks relate to US domestic conditions? Has the region engaged in procyclical or countercyclical monetary and fiscal policy in response to external shocks? In this paper we address these questions through an empirical exercise that involves the identification of US domestic structural shocks as LA external shocks, in a two-block model. We find that domestic US fluctuations have a significant impact on commodity prices, and such effect heavily conditions LA capital inflows and LA performance in terms of economic activity, inflation, domestic currency movements, and reserve accumulation. There is no clear evidence that regional fiscal policy has been countercyclical. On the contrary, monetary policy reactions have been visibly countercyclical, driven in part by the impact of capital flows. Capital outflows also seemed to have played an important role in reducing banking currency mismatches in the context of domestic currency depreciations.
    Keywords: emerging markets, commodity prices, capital inflows, policy cyclicality
    JEL: E32 F32 Q02
    Date: 2014–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:57816&r=lam
  8. By: Paula C. Pereda; Tatiane A. de Menezes; Denisard Alves
    Abstract: Climate-sensitive health problems kill millions every year and undermine the physical and psychological well-being of millions more. To identify the climate impacts on dengue risk in Brazil, a comparative case study is used based on the synthetic controls approach. The South and Northeast regions of Brazil are compared to the rest of the country in order to identify those impacts. The results suggest that dengue is more prevalent in warmer regions, but the humidity conditions and amount of rainfall seem fundamental for increase of the diseases prevalence in temperate climate regions or drier tropical regions of the country. On the other hand, the increase in rainfall in the rainiest tropical areas could diminish the diseases prevalence, as standing water accumulations might be washed away. Therefore, due to expected climate changes in the future, the dengue fever distribution in the country might change, with the disease migrating from the north to the south. Public policy's role in minimizing these effects in the country should be focused on anticipating the proper climate conditions for dengue incidence by using integrated actions among local authorities.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Health Policy, Human health, Dengue fever, Synthetic control method, Climate change impacts on health
    Date: 2014–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:brikps:85876&r=lam

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