nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2014‒02‒08
nine papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Social Transfers: Incentives and Disincentives to Labour Insertion and Income Generation By Simone Cecchini
  2. Does economic integration increase trade margins? Empirical evidence from LAIAs countries By Luis Marcelo Florensa; Laura Márquez-Ramos; María Luisa Recalde; María Victoria Barone
  3. Combining Conditional Cash Transfers and Primary Health Care to Reduce Childhood Mortality in Brazil By Davide Rasella; Rômulo Paes-Sousa
  4. Global employment trends 2014 : Risk of a jobless recovery By International Labour Office
  5. Possibilities and Limitations of the Expansion of Social Protection through Classic Contributory Schemes: Notes on the Social Security Inclusion of the Poor Working Population By Leonardo José Rolim Guimarães; Rogério Nagamine Costanzi; Graziela Ansiliero
  6. The Macroeconomic Effects of Government Transfers: a Social Accounting Matrix Approach By Marcelo Neri; Fabio Monteiro Vaz; Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira de Souza
  7. The Impact of the Expansion of the Programa Bolsa Família on School Attendance By Lia Chitolina; Miguel Nathan Foguel; Naercio Menezes-Filho
  8. Fear of Labor Rigidities – The Role of Expectations in Employment Growth in Peru By Pablo Lavado; Gustavo Yamada
  9. O Impacto do Bolsa Família sobre o Poder de Decisão das Mulheres By Alan de Brauw; Daniel O. Gilligan; John Hoddinott; Shalini Roy

  1. By: Simone Cecchini (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC))
    Abstract: Over the last decade and a half, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes?together with other non-contributory social protection programmes such as social pensions ? have become the main gateway into social protection systems for poor and vulnerable populations in Latin America and the Caribbean, which were long excluded from any social protection benefit. Today, CCTs cover 127 million people, or 21 per cent of the region?s population. In several countries?including Brazil and Mexico?these programmes, which grant families a cash transfer on condition that they fulfil specific commitments aimed at improving their human capacities, have contributed significantly to reduce poverty and inequality.
    Keywords: Social Transfers: Incentives and Disincentives to Labour Insertion and Income Generation
    Date: 2013–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:opager:236&r=lam
  2. By: Luis Marcelo Florensa (Instituto de Economía y Finanzas- Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina); Laura Márquez-Ramos (Department of Economics and Instituto de Economía Internacional, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); María Luisa Recalde (Instituto de Economía y Finanzas- Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina); María Victoria Barone (Instituto de Economía y Finanzas- Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of economic integration in Latin America on the margins of trade. The analysis is performed on bilateral exports of goods from eleven member countries of the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) over the period 1962-2009. We distinguish the effects of different levels of integration on trade margins; different “timing” and different sectors. Our results provide evidence about the benefits of regional integration. Despite appearing to have contributed most to boosting exports of goods that were already exported rather than to diversification, regional trade integration is in line with LAIA members’ development and industrialization objectives.
    Keywords: Regional integration, extensive margin, intensive margin, LAIA, panel data
    JEL: F14 F15
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:jau:wpaper:2014/05&r=lam
  3. By: Davide Rasella (Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Federal University of Bahia); Rômulo Paes-Sousa (World Centre for Sustainable Development, RIO+ Centre)
    Abstract: Strategies adopted to reduce child mortality in developing countries are usually focused on interventions addressing biological causes, without considering its key underlying determinants. Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) are poverty reduction interventions that transfer money to poor households with the requirement that parents comply with specific conditions focused on improving health and education for their children.
    Keywords: Combining Conditional Cash Transfers and Primary Health Care to Reduce Childhood Mortality in Brazil
    Date: 2013–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:opager:242&r=lam
  4. By: International Labour Office
    Keywords: employment, unemployment, youth employment, youth unemployment, labour policy, economic recovery, regional development, Africa, Asia, Caribbean, developed countries, Europe, EU countries, Latin America, Middle East, Pacific
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ilo:trends:484616&r=lam
  5. By: Leonardo José Rolim Guimarães (Secretary of Social Security Policies); Rogério Nagamine Costanzi (Director of the Department of the General Social Security Regime); Graziela Ansiliero (Public Policy and Government Management Specialist)
    Abstract: Brazil has been making significant advances in its social protection system in the last 10 years. These advances result from improvements made possible through the contributory pillar, such as social security, through non-contributory pillars, and through the coordination of contributory and non-contributory policies. Specifically with regard to social security, there has been a significant increase in the social security coverage of the population
    Keywords: Possibilities and Limitations of the Expansion of Social Protection through Classic Contributory Schemes: Notes on the Social Security Inclusion
    Date: 2013–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:opager:237&r=lam
  6. By: Marcelo Neri (FGV, Centre for Social Policies - IBRE and EPGE); Fabio Monteiro Vaz (IPEA); Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira de Souza (IPEA)
    Abstract: Government transfers to individuals and families play a central role in the Brazilian social protection system, accounting for almost 14 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2009. While their fiscal and redistributive impacts have been widely studied, the macroeconomic effects of transfers are harder to ascertain.
    Keywords: The Macroeconomic Effects of Government Transfers: a Social Accounting Matrix Approach
    Date: 2013–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:opager:244&r=lam
  7. By: Lia Chitolina (University of São Paulo); Miguel Nathan Foguel (Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA)); Naercio Menezes-Filho (Insper and University of São Paulo)
    Abstract: Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programmes have been extensively used by many governments worldwide with the dual purpose of alleviating poverty in the short term and increasing investment in human capital for children from poor families, so that they can achieve better living conditions in the long term. The first goal is usually achieved through the money transfer component of programmes, and the second by making the transfer conditional on certain actions undertaken by beneficiary families, such as prenatal care, child immunisation and school attendance of children and adolescents. Therefore, it is expected that the children of beneficiary families will acquire the necessary skills to escape from poverty in the long term.
    Keywords: The Impact of the Expansion of the Programa Bolsa Família on School Attendance
    Date: 2013–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:opager:234&r=lam
  8. By: Pablo Lavado (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico); Gustavo Yamada (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)
    Abstract: Many studies have been conducted to analyze the effect of stricter Employment Protection Legislation (EPL). However, almost all of them has focused on an ex-post impact; leaving aside a second but equally important channel: expectations. This paper aims to analyze the role of expectations on peruvian formal and informal labor market; using news as our identification variable. We use the monthly number of news related to the approval of the General Labor Law (GLL), a proposal entailing future stronger labor rigidities, from January 2001 to May 2012. Using the Permanent Employment Survey (EPE), we find a negative relation between expectations towards a stricter labor market and both employment and average income. News mainly affect formal occupied EAP, arousing a substitution effect from formal to informal employment. We also discover that the effect of expectations differs in periods with higher versus lower GDP growth. Finally, we find some evidence supporting news having a cumulative effect: the larger the previous stock of news, the weaker the effect.
    Keywords: Fear, Labor, Rigidities, Role, Expectations, Employment, Growth, Peru , Perú, News, EAP
    JEL: D22 D24 D81 D82 D84 D92 E24 E26 J0 J20 J22 J23 J28 J38 J64 J68 J80 J81 J83 J88
    Date: 2013–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pai:wpaper:13-17&r=lam
  9. By: Alan de Brauw (International Food Policy Research Institute); Daniel O. Gilligan (International Food Policy Research Institute); John Hoddinott (International Food Policy Research Institute); Shalini Roy (International Food Policy Research Institute)
    Abstract: Em muitos Programas de Transferência Condicionada (PTCs) de renda no mundo ? inclusive no Programa Bolsa Família (PBF) do Brasil ? as transferências de renda são destinadas, preferencialmente, às mulheres. Esta característica foi motivada por pesquisas anteriores, que demonstraram que um controle maior dos recursos por parte das mulheres está associado a um aumento de seu poder de decisão e a maiores investimentos no capital humano e bem-estar das crianças (Quisumbing, 2003). No entanto, há poucas evidências quantitativas identificando que os PTCs com mulheres beneficiárias aumentam o poder de decisão das mulheres. Pesquisas anteriores não chegaram a um consenso sobre a questão. Além disso, elas tomam como base, em grande parte, o PTC, PROGRESA, do México, em sua primeira fase, exclusivamente implementado em áreas rurais, limitando muito a visão de como tais impactos podem ser diferentes em contextos distintos. Também é importante ressaltar que a transferência de renda para as mulheres não garante que o controle dos recursos por elas vá aumentar. Por exemplo, os cônjuges das mulheres ? ou outros membros da família ? podem assumir o controle dos recursos, uma vez que tais recursos sejam transferidos para eles. Portanto, são necessárias evidências empíricas para avaliar se os PTCs podem ser eficazes no aumento do poder de decisão das mulheres ? e em que circunstâncias isto ocorre. Dados a crescente popularidade dos PTCs e o grande interesse em ampliar o empoderamento das mulheres no mundo inteiro, a questão vem se tornando cada vez mais atraente.
    Keywords: O Impacto do Bolsa Família sobre o Poder de Decisão das Mulheres
    Date: 2013–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:opport:238&r=lam

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