nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2013‒11‒29
eight papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Effects of innovation on employment in Latin America By Crespi, Gustavo; Tacsir, Ezequiel
  2. Innovation for economic performance: The case of Latin American firms By Arias Ortiz, Elena; Crespi, Gustavo; Tacsir, Ezequiel; Vargas, Fernando; Zuniga, Pluvia
  3. Regional Economic Links in Latin America: lessons from Asia and challenges from the regional links of other BRICS By Renato Baumann
  4. How unemployment insurance savings accounts affect employment duration: Evidence from Chile By Nagler, Paula
  5. Declining Higher Education Quality Affects Postsecondary Choices: a Peruvian Case By Juan Francisco(F.) Castro; Gustavo Yamada
  6. Role of regulation in micro finance: application of the Micro Savings Requirement Scheme in informal sectors By Marianne, Roedl
  7. Informal-formal wage gaps in Colombia By Nancy Daza; Luis Fernando Gamboa
  8. Uncertainty in the Money supply mechanism and interbank markets in Colombia By Camilo GOnzález; Luisa Silva; Carmiña Vargas; Andrés Velasco

  1. By: Crespi, Gustavo (Competitiveness and Innovation Division, Inter-American Development Bank); Tacsir, Ezequiel (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG)
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of process and product innovation on employment growth and composition in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay using micro data from innovation surveys. Based on the model put forward by Harrison et al. (1998), employment growth is related to process innovations and to the growth of sales separately due to innovative and unchanged products. Results show that compensation effects are pervasive and that the introduction of new products is associated with employment growth at the firm level. No evidence of displacement effects due to the introduction of product innovations was observed. With respect to the impact of innovation on employment composition, there is scant evidence of a skill bias, although product innovation is more complementary to skilled than to unskilled labour.
    Keywords: innovation, employment, developing countries, Latin America, innovation surveys
    JEL: O12 O14 O31 O33 O40 J21
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unm:unumer:2013001&r=lam
  2. By: Arias Ortiz, Elena (Education Division, Inter-American Development Bank); Crespi, Gustavo (Competitiveness and Innovation Division, Inter-American Development Bank); Tacsir, Ezequiel (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG, and Competitiveness and Innovation Division, Inter-American Development Bank); Vargas, Fernando (Competitiveness and Innovation Division, Inter-American Development Bank); Zuniga, Pluvia (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG)
    Abstract: In this paper, a wide range of innovation indicators are analysed in order to describe the innovation behaviour of manufacturing firms in LAC using the recently released Enterprise Surveys 2010. The Enterprise Surveys define innovation rates as the share of firms introducing product and process innovations. The survey also measures the proportion of firms investing in research and development (R&D) and filing for intellectual property rights (IPRs). The aim of this note is to understand the main characteristics of innovative firms and to gather new evidence with regard to the nature of the innovation process in the region. Statistics about the performance of LAC firms are provided using different types of indicators to measure firms' innovative behaviour. In particular, differences in innovation performance and effort by country, sector, and key firm characteristics, such as being a multinational or exporter, are explored. Those firms in LAC that are top R&D performers are identified, and the analysis closes with an exploration of firm characteristics that strongly correlate with the probability of being a top R&D performer in the region.
    Keywords: innovation, research and development, Latin America, enterprise surveys
    JEL: D22 O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unm:unumer:2013028&r=lam
  3. By: Renato Baumann
    Abstract: Since the early 1950s Latin American countries have made systematic efforts to foster regional transactions. Nevertheless, the indicators of relative importance of regional trade remain well below the corresponding figures in other regions. This paper argues that a process of integration should take into account the differences between what can be achieved by negotiating with closer neighbours and with geographically distant partners. Also, at present there is an increasing competition from Asian goods, which have negatively affected Latin American producers. Among the lessons from the recent Asian experience are the economic links among countries that have helped to improve competitiveness as well as to foster the degree of convergence of the GDP growth rates of the participating countries.
    Keywords: regional integration, productive complementarity, competitiveness and trade barriers
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rsc:rsceui:2013/03&r=lam
  4. By: Nagler, Paula (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG)
    Abstract: The introduction of unemployment insurance savings accounts (UISA) in Chile in October 2002 brought in more comprehensive unemployment protection while decreasing the opportunity costs of job change. Being the first to empirically investigate the effect of UISA on employment duration, this paper examines (i) whether the introduction of UISA affected employment duration among formal private sector workers, and (ii) the magnitude of this effect. The analysis is performed on longitudinal social protection data and uses survival analysis techniques, including non-parametric, semi-parametric and parametric analysis, and competing-risk models. The paper finds that workers participating in the scheme show an increased hazard ratio of leaving employment, or accelerated time to employment termination. The effect is larger for workers becoming unemployed or inactive compared to workers changing jobs. The results provide strong support that the introduction of UISA led to shorter employment duration and higher mobility of the workforce in Chile.
    Keywords: Unemployment Insurance Savings Accounts, Employment Duration, Survival Analysis, Chile
    JEL: C41 J63 J64 J65
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unm:unumer:2013039&r=lam
  5. By: Juan Francisco(F.) Castro (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico); Gustavo Yamada (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)
    Abstract: Few adolescents in the developing world receive sufficient guidance to make crucial life decisions during the transition from secondary to postsecondary education and into the labor market. Consequently, a significant number of graduates regret the decisions they make. The excessive rigidity of most higher education systems prevents lateral shifts between programs or from technical to university education. In addition, in Peru limited information about the range of programs and their labor market outcomes, combined with an increasing number of low-quality providers, contribute to the problem. A recent survey of Peru’s urban working-age population revealed that only 35 percent of young professionals (ages 22 to 30) were satisfied with the postsecondary choices they had made. This implies that, if given the opportunity, nearly two-thirds of young professionals would choose another career or institution, a different degree (university or technical), or would have entered the labor market directly after completing their secondary education.
    Keywords: Academic Quality Assessment Accreditacion Peru Latin America Higher Education
    JEL: I0 I20 I21 I23 I24 I25 I29 J0 J20 J21 J22 J23 J24 J28 J82
    Date: 2013–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pai:wpaper:13-02&r=lam
  6. By: Marianne, Roedl
    Abstract: An innovative aspect of this paper is evidenced through its recommendation of the Micro-Savings Requirement Scheme - which offers numerous benefits – as will be highlighted in this paper. Furthermore, the paper not only addresses how linkages, direct and facilitating linkages, can benefit microfinance institutions – and particularly in jurisdictions where the Savings Group Outreach involvement is particularly low, but also illustrates ways and means whereby group lending and other more recent innovative methods used by micro lenders to secure repayments, could increase the desired effects, efficiency and impact of microfinance in selected jurisdictions. In so doing, it addresses some of the existing and persisting problems of micro finance in rural areas.
    Keywords: microfinance; regulation; agency theory; Micro-Savings Requirement Scheme; Africa; Asia; Latin America
    JEL: D82 G2 G21 K2
    Date: 2013–11–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:51623&r=lam
  7. By: Nancy Daza (National Planning Department (DNP), Colombia); Luis Fernando Gamboa (Department of Economics, Universidad del Rosario, Colombia)
    Abstract: This document provides recent evidence about the persistency of wage gaps between formal and informal workers in Colombia. The methodology is based on a non-parametric procedure proposed by Nopo (2008a) that allows us to compare labor incomes using matching on variables over a Nationwide Household Survey during 2008-2012. It is found that formal workers earn between 30 to 60 percent more, on average, than informal workers according to the definition of formality adopted and small variations occurs along this period. This is new evidence about the true differences in labor compensation from workers with distinct formality levels in Colombia. These results are important inputs for labor policy in a country with high income inequality levels.
    Keywords: Wage gaps, non-parametric, Colombia, informality.
    JEL: J31 C14 O17
    Date: 2013–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:inq:inqwps:ecineq2013-301&r=lam
  8. By: Camilo GOnzález; Luisa Silva; Carmiña Vargas; Andrés Velasco
    Abstract: We set a dynamic stochastic model for the interbank daily market for funds in Colombia. The framework features exogenous reserve requirements and requirement period, competitive trading among heterogeneous commercial banks, daily open market operations held by the Central Bank(auctions and window facilities), and idiosyncratic demand shocks and uncertainty in the daily auction. Analytical derivations of their decision making process show that banks involvement in the interbank market and open market operations depend on their individual requirement constraint and daily liquid assets. Our results do not show a linkage between the uncertainty in the money supply mechanism and activity in the interbank market. Equilibrium interest rate for the interbank market is derived, and is shown that it is distorted by uncertainty at the daily auction held by the monetary authority. Using data for Colombia, we test the main results of the model and corroborate the Martingale hypothesis for the interbank interest rate.
    Keywords: Interbank Market; Overnight Rates; Reserve Demand. Classification JEL: E44, E52, G21
    Date: 2013–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bdr:borrec:790&r=lam

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