New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2013‒10‒25
four papers chosen by

  1. ¿Quiénes eligen la disciplina de la educación en Colombia? Caracterización desde el desempeño en las pruebas SABER 11 By JUan D.Barón; Leoanrdo Bonilla; Lina Cardona-Sosa; Mónica Ospina
  2. The Chilean Labor Market: Job Creation, Quality, Inclusiveness, and Future Challenges By Parro, Francisco; Reyes, Loreto
  3. Cumplimiento de los acuerdos alcanzados en los Consejos de Salarios en Uruguay entre 2007-2011 By Virginia Cabrera; Cecilia Cárpena; Ivone Perazzo
  4. Educação para todos –“free to those who can afford it”: human capital and inequality persistence in 21st c Brazil By Kendrick, Neil

  1. By: JUan D.Barón; Leoanrdo Bonilla; Lina Cardona-Sosa; Mónica Ospina
    Abstract: Poco se sabe en Colombia acerca de las competencias académicas de los maestros. Este documento investiga sobre el estándar académico de las personas que cursan y se gradúan de programas superiores en educación. Los resultados indican que existe una relación inversa entre el desempeño en la prueba de Estado SABER 11 y la probabilidad de estudiar (y/o graduarse) de un programa en el área de educación. Estimamos que esta probabilidad es cinco veces más alta cuando se obtuvo un puntaje en las pruebas SABER 11 entre los más bajos que cuando se obtuvo un resultado entre los más altos. Esta diferencia es aún mayor para las mujeres. El documento discute algunas hipótesis que explicarían estos resultados.
    Keywords: Maestros, profesores, competencia, calidad. Classification JEL: I21, I28, J31
    Date: 2013–10
  2. By: Parro, Francisco; Reyes, Loreto
    Abstract: This paper analyzes recent labor market developments in the Chilean economy. The evidence shows a booming labor market with strong job creation since 2010. Most of the jobs created during the past three years are quality jobs—that is, jobs with a written contract and whose employers have made the corresponding payments toward pensions, healthcare, and unemployment insurance. We show that a combination of economic growth and specific policies seems to be the driving force behind the strong creation of quality jobs. Additionally, we show that the rapid job creation has been inclusive and constitutes one of the potential explanations for the fall in income inequality observed during the past three years. However, a further reduction in income inequality remains an important challenge for the future. Greater access to a quality education for vulnerable groups is the key to achieving that goal.
    Keywords: Labor Markets, Inequality, Skills
    JEL: J21 J24 J31
    Date: 2013–05
  3. By: Virginia Cabrera (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Egresada); Cecilia Cárpena (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Egresada); Ivone Perazzo (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: Despite the importance of collective bargaining in the economic sphere, there is little empirical evidence on the evaluation of it as an effective instrument for fixation of minimum wages. Furthermore, existing studies on deviations between wages actually paid and agreed, focus on analyzing the extent to which wages actually paid are adjusted or exceed those agreed, but not to the extent that they are breached. Precisely, this paper focuses on the potential detours down the wages actually paid. Considering the lower awards by category, we find that the level of noncompliance shows a downward trend, although small in magnitude, for the period 2007-2011: went from 16.6% in 2007 to 14% in 2011.
    Keywords: collective bargaining, Uruguay, wage drift
    JEL: J01 J59
    Date: 2013–10
  4. By: Kendrick, Neil
    Abstract: As one of the world’s most unequal societies, Brazil is often referred to as a land of contrasts: the causes of its high levels of income inequality continuously debated. When solutions are discussed, one of the more frequently recited policy prescriptions is to expand the supply of education within the economy. Through utilisation of socio-economic profiles of students who subscribed to and were enrolled in Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), one of the more progressive public higher education establishments, the data indicates that, between1987- 2010, the Brazilian education system could in fact have exacerbated inequality, despite society having undertaken national educational expansion. The data illustrates how, during the period analysed, less than 35% of UNICAMP students attended only public education; and that moreover, while 61% had attended entrance examination preparation courses, nearly three quarters of participants at these examinations failed to be enrolled at the first time of asking. It is also estimated that more than 60% of UNICAMP students are from households from the 9th and 10th income decile. With the socio-economic profiles of public higher education tending to favour high income households, the curative effects of educational expansion on income inequality appear to be paradoxical. Therefore, a more qualitative approach to public education expansion may be required if a more egalitarian society is to be engendered by tuition-free public higher institutions.
    Keywords: Education; Human Capital; Inequality; Brazil
    JEL: N0 N3 N36
    Date: 2013

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