New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2013‒06‒30
six papers chosen by

  1. Un estudio sobre las disparidades regionales en Colombia a través del análisis exploratorio y confirmatorio de datos espaciales, 1985 – 2010 By Loaiza Quintero, Osmar Leandro; Moncada Mesa, Jhonny
  2. Opening the Black Box of Contract Renegotiations: An Analysis of Road Concessions in Chile, Colombia and Peru By Eduardo Bitran; Sebastián Nieto-Parra; Juan Sebastián Robledo
  3. Loans for Higher Education: Does the Dream Come True? By Tomás Rau; Eugenio Rojas; Sergio Urzúa
  4. Gestión de la propiedad intelectual en las organizaciones. Una revisión de la literatura reciente By Lis-Gutiérrez, Jenny-Paola
  5. Urban violence and humanitarian action in Medellin By Liliana Bernal Franco; Claudia Navas Caputo
  6. The Politics of Transport Infrastructure Policies in Colombia By Sebastián Nieto-Parra; Mauricio Olivera; Anamaría Tibocha

  1. By: Loaiza Quintero, Osmar Leandro; Moncada Mesa, Jhonny
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the evolution of regional differences in Colombia from 1993 to 2005. This paper uses information at the municipal (county) level about poverty and city council’s income. It is found that Colombia’s political territory is polarized around two classes of clusters: one of low poverty and high income city councils, and other of widespread poverty and low income municipalities. The first cluster is located in the country’s interior, in the Andean region and is delimited by the country’s three main cities. The second cluster comprises the bulk of the Atlantic (North) and Pacific (West) regions, as well as the Southern and Eastern parts of Colombia. Apparently, there’s evidence pointing to some positive externalities arising from proximity to one of the main three cities or being close to the transit corridors that connect each of them. Finally, three spatial regression models are estimated that found, rather surprisingly, that there’s been a slow process of convergence among Colombia’s municipalities (in tributary income). This result may by explained mainly through a process of contagion that is taking place mainly in the neighborhood of Colombia’s top three metropolitan areas, as the gap with the more distant and poor municipalities persists. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la evolución de las diferencias entre regiones en Colombia, desde 1985 hasta 2010. Este artículo utiliza información a escala municipal sobre el nivel de pobreza y el nivel de ingresos. Se encuentra que el territorio Colombiano está polarizado alrededor de dos clusters: uno compuesto por municipios con baja pobreza y alto ingreso tributario, y otro de alta pobreza y bajos ingresos tributarios. El primero está ubicado en el interior del país, en la región andina y está delimitado por las tres ciudades principales en Colombia. El segundo comprende el grueso de la región Atlántica y Pacífica, y partes del Sur y el Oriente del país. Aparentemente, hay evidencia que apunta a la existencia de externalidades positivas que surgen de la proximidad a alguna de las tres ciudades principales o de la cercanía a los corredores viales que las conectan. Finalmente, se ajustan tres modelos de regresión espacial, los cuales encuentran de manera un poco sorprendente que existe un lento proceso de convergencia entre las municipalidades de Colombia (en ingresos tributarios). Este resultado puede ser explicado principalmente a través de un proceso de contagio que está teniendo lugar en las cercanías de las tres principales áreas metropolitanas, puesto que las brechas con respecto a poblaciones más distantes aún persisten.
    Keywords: Regional economics, regional disparities, exploratory spatial data analysis, spatial regression, convergence. Economía regional, análisis exploratorio de datos espaciales, regresión espacial, convergencia.
    JEL: C21 R10 R12
    Date: 2013–06–20
  2. By: Eduardo Bitran; Sebastián Nieto-Parra; Juan Sebastián Robledo
    Abstract: This paper studies the renegotiations of road concessions in Chile, Colombia and Peru for the period 1993-2010. First, it analyses the legal framework, the institutional design and the types of concessions of these countries and second, it uses a novel data composed of a sample of 61 of the 62 road concession contracts to explore the renegotiation of these concessions. 50 out of 61 contracts have been modified at least once, resulting in more than 540 renegotiations. All modified contracts were changed for the first time less than 3 years after the initial signing of the concession. Empirical analysis suggests that State-led renegotiations, which were more common than firm-led renegotiations, were motivated by the opportunistic behaviour of governments. State-led renegotiations that added new stretches of roads and that included additional complementary works during governments’ last year in office were costlier than other renegotiations. Finally, governments deferred a larger share of renegotiation’s fiscal costs in State-led renegotiations that took place during their last year in office.<BR>Cet article étudie les renégociations des concessions routières au Chili, en Colombie et au Pérou pour la période 1993-2010. Il analyse d’abord le cadre juridique et institutionnel, ainsi que les types des concessions de ces pays, puis il utilise un ensemble de nouvelles données composées d'un échantillon de 61 des 62 contrats de concession du réseau routier afin d’examiner la renégociation de ces contrats. 50 contrats ont été modifiés au moins une fois, ce qui a entraîné plus de 540 renégociations. Tous les contrats modifiés ont été renégociés pour la première fois moins de trois ans après la signature initiale de la concession. L'analyse empirique suggère que les renégociations menées par l'État ont été plus fréquentes que les renégociations entamées par les entreprises et qu’elles ont été motivées par un comportement opportuniste des gouvernements. Les renégociations débutées par l’État qui ont ajouté de nouvelles tranches sur le réseau routier et qui ont inclus des travaux complémentaires pendant la dernière année au pouvoir ont été plus coûteuses que les autres renégociations. Enfin, les gouvernements ont reporté au futur une plus grande partie des coûts budgétaires quand les renégociations ont été motivées par l'État pendant la dernière année au pouvoir.
    Keywords: public private partnerships, Latin America, concession contracts, renegociation, partenariats public-privé, Amérique latine, contrats de concession, renégociation
    JEL: D7 H11 H54 O54 P16 R42
    Date: 2013–05–03
  3. By: Tomás Rau; Eugenio Rojas; Sergio Urzúa
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of student loans for higher education on enrollment, dropout decisions, and earnings. We investigate the massive State Guaranteed Loan (SGL) program implemented in Chile in 2006. Our empirical analysis is based on the estimation of a sequential schooling decision model with unobserved heterogeneity. We supplement this model with labor market outcomes. The model is estimated using rich longitudinal data generated from administrative records. Our findings show that the SGL program increased the probability of enrollment and reduced the probability of dropping out from tertiary education: SGL reduced the first year dropout rate by 6.8% for students enrolled in five-year colleges and by 64.3% for those enrolled in institutions offering two- or four-year degrees. Moreover, we document that the SGL program has been more effective in reducing the probability of dropping out for low-skilled individuals from low-income families. When analyzing labor market outcomes, we find that SGL beneficiaries have lower wages (up to 6.4% less) than those who did not "benefit'' from the program. We attribute this negative result to the design of the SGL program, which has incentivized higher education institutions to retain students at the expense of not securing the quality of education
    JEL: C31 D14 I24 I28
    Date: 2013–06
  4. By: Lis-Gutiérrez, Jenny-Paola
    Abstract: This paper makes a review of the literature on the intellectual property management (IPM) in organizations. The sources of the documentation reviewed are Scopus, Emerald, SciELO and SSRN indexed papers. This exploration includes works published from 2003 given that Hanel (2004) developed a comprehensive review of practices in IPM. This paper analyzes the relationship in the literature among IPM, organizations and Universities, as well as some case studies in the United States, China, Japan, Europe and Latin America. Este artículo tiene el propósito de realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre la gestión de la propiedad intelectual (GPI) en las empresas. La documentación revisada para su elaboración tiene como fuente los artículos indexados en el índice bibliográfico Scopus y en las bases Emerald, Scielo y SSRN. La presente exploración abarca trabajos publicados a partir de 2003, ya que Hanel (2004) elaboró una revisión exhaustiva sobre prácticas en la GPI. El documento aborda la relación existente en la literatura entre la GPI y, las organizaciones, la Universidad; así como algunos casos de estudio en Estados Unidos, China, Japón, Europa y América Latina.
    Keywords: propiedad intelectual, gestión, organizaciones, patentes, universidad, intellectual property management, organizations, patents, university.
    JEL: L20 M15 M51 O34
    Date: 2013–06–18
  5. By: Liliana Bernal Franco (CERAC); Claudia Navas Caputo (CERAC)
    Date: 2013–06
  6. By: Sebastián Nieto-Parra; Mauricio Olivera; Anamaría Tibocha
    Abstract: This paper analyses the Policy-Making Process (PMP) of transport infrastructure projects in Colombia for the period 2002-10. It aims to identify the main bottlenecks to improve the implementation of public policies in the main phases of the transport infrastructure policy cycle, namely planning, budgeting, execution, and monitoring and evaluation. The main results draw three conclusions. Firstly, there is a need to improve the planning and prioritisation stages of roads construction. Secondly, information problems affect monitoring and evaluation. Finally, the institutional weakness in the transport sector causes co-ordination failures between different transport modes (horizontal level) as well as inadequate separation of responsibilities and management of resources between national and sub-national governments (vertical level). This paper contributes to the research studying the PMP in Latin American economies.<BR>Cet article analyse le processus de formulation des politiques de mise en place de projets d'infrastructure de transport en Colombie pour la période 2002-10. Il identifie les principaux obstacles qui doivent être traités afin d'améliorer la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques dans les principales phases du cycle de l'infrastructure de transport, à savoir la planification, la budgétisation, l'exécution, le suivi et l'évaluation. Les principaux résultats conduisent à trois conclusions. Tout d'abord, il est nécessaire d'améliorer la planification et la priorisation de la construction du réseau des voies. Deuxièmement, les problèmes d'information affectent le suivi et l'évaluation. Enfin, la défaillance institutionnelle dans le secteur des transports provoque des échecs dans la coordination entre les différents modes de transport (niveau horizontal) ainsi que dans la séparation insuffisante des responsabilités et de la gestion des ressources entre les gouvernements nationaux et sous-nationaux (niveau vertical). Ce document contribue aux travaux de recherche sur le processus de formulation des politiques des pays latino-américains.
    Keywords: infrastructure, political economy, game theory, transport policies, policy making process, infrastructure, économie politique, théorie des jeux, politiques de transport, processus de formulation des politiques
    JEL: D78 H11 H54 O18 P16
    Date: 2013–04–09

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.