nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2013‒05‒05
seven papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. ¿Es la concentración espacial un problema para el crecimiento en América Latina? By Miguel Atienza; Patricio Aroca
  2. Spatial Income Inequality in Chile and the Rol of Spatial Labor Sorting By Susana Katherine Chacón Espejo; Dusan Paredes Araya
  3. Situación de inmigración y asentamiento de grupos Afrocolombianos en la Región Antofagasta, con énfasis en las mujeres. By Jimena Silva Segovia; Marcelo Lufin Varas
  4. El comportamiento del tipo de cambio real en Colombia: ¿Explicado por sus fundamentales? By Carolina Arteaga; Joan Camilo Granados; Jair Ojeda Joya
  5. Dinâmica regional e ordenamento do território brasileiro: desafios e oportunidades By Clélio Campolina Diniz
  6. What Do Parties Do in Congress? Explaining the Allocation of Legislative Specialization By Ponce, Aldo F
  7. Best practices of the SME mining suppliers in the Antofagasta region of Chile By Miguel Atienza; Patricio Aroca; Robert Stimson; Roger Stough

  1. By: Miguel Atienza (IDEAR - ORDHUM - Department of Economics, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile); Patricio Aroca (IDEAR - Department of Economics, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile)
    Abstract: As countries develop, the persistency of a high level of spatial concentration may become a source of inefficiency and constrain national growth. . The primacy of the main cities has persisted In Latin America, despite high urbanization rates and significant increases in GDP per capita. This article analyzes whether spatial concentration has become an obstacle for growth in Latin America. For this purpose, we analyze the urbanization process and the evolution of concentration in Latin America during the past five decades and identify which countries could have an excess of concentration. Results show that there is a group of countries, particularly those located in the southern cone, where spatial concentration is not only an equity problem but also an obstacle for national efficiency that should be considered en the design of development strategies.
    Keywords: Spatial concentration, growth, urbanization, development
    JEL: O40 O54 R12
    Date: 2013–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cat:dtecon:dt201310&r=lam
  2. By: Susana Katherine Chacón Espejo (Master in Regional Sciences - Department of Economics, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile); Dusan Paredes Araya (IDEAR - Department of Economics, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile)
    Abstract: The spatial income inequality in Latin American countries is a recent academic affair. Particularly, the case of Chile highlights around the world because it has one of the highest individual and spatial inequality rates. This article analyzes the spatial income inequality in Chile during 1992 2011 evaluating the role of the spatial labor sorting through multilevel models. The findings show that human capital doesn't allocate randomly across the space but its spatial concentration at the biggest urban centers impacts significantly the income inequality between counties. These findings motivate the discussion about spatial dimension of the inequality and suggest that policymakers should consider ways to spread human capital throughout the nation as an alternative to reduce spatial inequality.
    Keywords: Spatial income inequality, spatial labor sorting, human capital, multilevel regression.
    JEL: O15 O18 R12 R23
    Date: 2013–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cat:dtecon:dt201315&r=lam
  3. By: Jimena Silva Segovia (Escuela de Psicología, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile); Marcelo Lufin Varas (IDEAR - Department of Economics, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile)
    Abstract: Este artículo propone caracterizar la situación de familias inmigrantes afrocolombianas, con énfasis en mujeres viviendo en la región Antofagasta, Chile. Desde una metodología mixta, se utilizaron entrevistas, grupos de conversación y encuestas con grupos de hombres y mujeres nacidos en Colombia asentados en Chile. Se buscó describir sus experiencias en dos contextos: el primero, de afuera hacia dentro como contexto de inmigración, Colombia y el segundo, el contexto actual de inmigración en Chile. Entre los principales hallazgos se describe lo que implica el desplazamiento para las mujeres, desde las motivaciones de migrar, y las experiencias relevantes que se concretan en el acceso al territorio chileno y la regulación de su situación migratoria. De manera transversal se observó la prevalencia o no de los derechos fundamentales, sociales, económicos y una incidencia constante sobre la mujer inmigrante desde los sistemas de género contextuales y étnicos que le afectan.
    Keywords: Inmigración, mujeres afrocolombianas integración, adaptación.
    Date: 2013–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cat:dtecon:dt201304&r=lam
  4. By: Carolina Arteaga; Joan Camilo Granados; Jair Ojeda Joya
    Abstract: En este trabajo estudiamos el comportamiento del tipo de cambio real (TCR) de Colombia con la ayuda de un modelo de cointegración que considera la interacción entre el TCR y un conjunto de determinantes macroeconómicos durante el periodo 1994-2012 con datos trimestrales. Estos fundamentales incluyen un nuevo indicador de productividad relativa el cual nos permite estimar el impacto del efecto Balassa-Samuelson sobre el TCR de Colombia. Esta metodología permite detectar los trimestres en los cuales el TCR se encuentra alejado de su relación de cointegración y por tanto, no está explicado por el comportamiento de sus fundamentales. Los resultados indican que la apreciación real observada desde finales de 2003 es explicada principalmente por el aumento en los términos de intercambio y en segundo lugar por el efecto Balassa-Samuelson. Adicionalmente, la dinámica del TCR se explica principalmente por el movimiento en los activos externos netos en el corto plazo y por el del consumo del gobierno en el mediano plazo.
    Keywords: Tipo de cambio real, efecto Balassa-Samuelson, Términos de intercambio, VEC, activos externos netos, desalineamiento Classification JEL:F31, F32, C32
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bdr:borrec:742&r=lam
  5. By: Clélio Campolina Diniz (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: The paper assesses the regional dynamics and the reorganization of the Brazilian territory. It departs from the notion that the concept of region surpasses that of a demarcation of a territory and represents natural, social, and economic indicators. From this starting point, the paper considers Brazil’s administrative division and its distinct forms of institutional organization. This effort, coupled with the analysis of regional indicators, leads to the discussion of regional policies, which, in their turn, are inextricable from urban policies.
    Keywords: regional dynamics, territory, regional policy, urban policy, Brazil.
    JEL: R11 R58
    Date: 2013–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdp:texdis:td471&r=lam
  6. By: Ponce, Aldo F
    Abstract: This article studies the determinants of the concentration of legislative specialization of parties across policy jurisdictions. Greater concentration of legislative specialization leads parties to concentrate their legislative efforts on a smaller set of policy jurisdictions. Through enhancing their concentration of legislative specialization in certain policy areas, parties can more clearly signal their policy concerns and interests to voters. This study argues and shows that relatively low electoral volatility and a low number of political parties (institutional traits) boost the concentration of legislative specialization. Greater electoral stability increases the incentives for parties to specialize further on certain policy jurisdictions. I also argue and verify that lower legislative fragmentation, producing larger parties, reduces the opportunity costs of legislative specialization. As I explain below, understanding the configuration of legislative specialization might help illuminate the evolution of key characteristics of party systems such as its degree of programmaticness and its degree of institutionalization, and to which extent parties are able to construct issue ownership.
    Keywords: legislative specialization, programmatic parties, congress, Latin America
    JEL: H1 H11 H41
    Date: 2013–04–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:46573&r=lam
  7. By: Miguel Atienza (IDEAR - ORDHUM - Department of Economics, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile); Patricio Aroca (IDEAR - Department of Economics, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile); Robert Stimson (Australian Urban Research Infraestructure Network. Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, University of Melbourne VIC 3010, Australia); Roger Stough (George Mason University, School of Public Policy 4400 University Drive, MS6D5 Fairfax, Virginia 22030 USA)
    Abstract: In regions whose industrial structure is organized around one or more large firm corporations, the best practices of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) depend on where firms are located in the supply chain. This paper studies 351 SMEs in the Antofagasta Region in Chile between 2007 and 2008, where multinational and public mining companies are the drivers of the local economy and the government is promoting the formation of a mining cluster. Structural equation model (SEM) is used to show that first-tier SME mining suppliers, directly related to large corporations, follow business practices that promote international certification, quality control and investment in innovation, while in contrast second-tier SMEs are more focused on avoiding insolvency and client orientation. These results cast doubt on the formation of a mining cluster in the region and suggest the need for differentiated policies in these two groups of SMEs, especially those related to knowledge transfer.
    Keywords: Spatial concentration, growth, urbanization, development
    JEL: D22 L25 L72 R11
    Date: 2013–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cat:dtecon:dt201311&r=lam

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