nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2012‒12‒10
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Incentivos tributarios para la I+D+i en Argentina: Una evaluación de las políticas recientes By David Giuliodori; Roberto Giuliodori
  2. Innovation, Exports and Productivity: Learning and Self selection in Chile By Claudio Bravo-Ortega; Jose Miguel Benavente; Álvaro González
  3. Caso exitoso eficiencia energética: Hotel Explora: San Pedro de Atacama By Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID); Fundación Chile
  4. TRADE, INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND POVERTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A SURVEY By Amelia U. Santos-Paulino

  1. By: David Giuliodori; Roberto Giuliodori
    Abstract: En este trabajo se presenta un análisis del instrumento del crédito fiscal como mecanismo de incentivo para la inversión en I+D+i en Argentina, tal como se encuentra funcionando desde el año 1998. Se describen los principales aspectos regulatorios del mismo y, a través de modelos estructurales con datos de panel, se calcularon las elasticidades de corto y largo plazo de la inversión en I+D+i con respecto al costo del uso del capital, con el objetivo de cuantificar la eficacia del instrumento. En el análisis también se efectuaron diferenciaciones según el componente del gasto, la intensidad de la inversión en I+D y el tamaño de las firmas.
    Keywords: Ciencia y tecnología :: Investigación y desarrollo, Economía :: Desarrollo y crecimiento económicos, I+D, crédito fiscal, costo de capital, elasticidad, dialogo regional de politica
    JEL: O3 D2 O32
    Date: 2012–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:brikps:77798&r=lam
  2. By: Claudio Bravo-Ortega; Jose Miguel Benavente; Álvaro González
    Abstract: Since long ago economists have shown that research and development (R&D) and business innovation are key factors for the growth of firms and the development of the economies. There is also some consensus that greater degrees of trade openness are beneficial for the long-term growth of countries. Nonetheless, there is still no evidence on the combined impact of both factors even though the link between them seem of particular relevance, especially for developing countries. This article examines the relationship between productivity, expenditure in R&D and exports at a plant level for the case of Chile. The main results show that firms that actually spend on R&D are considerably more likely to export but the reverse is not true. Moreover, we observe that both R&D and exports have a joint effect on the improvement in productivity in the Chilean plants. These results allow us to recover the private return to R&D and to learning by exporting across different sectors.
    Date: 2012–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:udc:wpaper:wp371&r=lam
  3. By: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID); Fundación Chile
    Abstract: Este documento presenta el caso exitoso de mejora de la eficiencia energética en el Hotel Explora en San Pedro de Atacama. La empresa, mediante los aportes del BID-FOMIN - a través del "Programa de promoción de oportunidades de energías limpias" - ejecutado por Fundación Chile, logró ahorros anuales de 60 millones, un retorno de la inversión de 1 a 3 años, y un ahorro de emisiones de CO2 de 140 toneladas al año. En el documento se explican los pormenores financieros y técnicos del proyecto.
    Keywords: Energía y minería :: Eficiencia energética, Ciencia y tecnología :: Nuevas tecnologías, Energía y minería :: Petróleo, carbón y gas natural, Sector privado, lessons learned, case study, estudio de caso, lecciones aprendidas
    Date: 2012–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:brikps:77881&r=lam
  4. By: Amelia U. Santos-Paulino
    Abstract: The paper surveys the theoretical and empirical research on how trade and trade liberalization affect poverty and income distribution. The impact of globalization on poverty reduction has been uneven but the findings in the literature are sensitive to modelling choices. Trade liberalization improves aggregate welfare but the gains are small and unequally distributed. The welfare effects are measured basically through price changes, focusing on the effect on the relative demand for domestic factors of production and, in particular, the demand for skilled relative to unskilled labour. The literature shows that poverty constraints originate from various sources including infrastructure, skills, incomplete markets, and policy.
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unc:dispap:207&r=lam

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