New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2012‒06‒05
four papers chosen by

  1. Labour informality in Latin America: the case of Argentina, Chile, Brazil and Peru By Roxana Maurizio
  2. EDUCATION AND LABOUR MARKET OUTCOMES: EVIDENCE FROM BRAZIL By R Freguglia; G Spricigo; Geraint Johnes; A Aggarwal
  3. Tobacco Control Legislation in Costa Rica (1971-2012): After 40 Years of Tobacco Industry Dominance, Tobacco Control Advocacy Succeeds By Crosbie, Eric MA; Sebrie, Ernesto M. MD MPH; Glantz, Stanton A. PhD
  4. Algunos limitantes al crecimiento en Colombia By David Forero; Norberto Rojas; Roberto Steiner

  1. By: Roxana Maurizio
    Abstract: Abstract Analysis of labour informality is very relevant in Latin America. More than half of all workers in the region are employed in informal activities, mainly as ownaccount workers or wage earners in small enterprises. A similar percentage of people work in jobs not registered in the social security system. The aim of this paper is to analyse two important aspects related to informality from a comparative point of view. The first is the association of informality, labour precariousness and income segmentation. The second is the relationship between informality and poverty. In order to conduct this study, four countries were selected – Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru – whose informal sectors and informal employment are significantly different from each other. Data used in this paper come from household surveys with the most recent available information.
    Date: 2012
  2. By: R Freguglia; G Spricigo; Geraint Johnes; A Aggarwal
    Abstract: The effect of education on labour market outcomes is analysed using both survey and administrative data from The Brazilian PNAD and RAIS-MIGRA series, respectively. Occupational destination is examined using both multinomial logit analyses and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach is particularly useful as a means of evaluating policy impacts over time. We find that policy to expand educational provision leads initially to an increased take-up of education, and in the longer term leads to an increased propensity for workers to enter non-manual employment.
    Date: 2011
  3. By: Crosbie, Eric MA; Sebrie, Ernesto M. MD MPH; Glantz, Stanton A. PhD
    Abstract:  The tobacco industry successfully blocked or displaced strong tobacco control legislation in Costa Rica for nearly 40 years using similar strategies used in the U.S. and the rest of the world, until the country successfully passed a strong tobacco control law in March 2012. During the 1970s and 1980s, the tobacco companies displaced strong tobacco control legislation on tobacco advertising by endorsing weaker executive decrees. In response to increased tobacco control pressure, the industry successfully weakened the 1995 law by secretly hiring scientific consultants to counter the SHS threat and using the hospitality industry to rollout the Courtesy of Choice program in Costa Rica (then Latin America). Tobacco companies then used Costa Rica as a model to rollout industry youth smoking prevention programs and corporate social responsibility campaigns throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The industry continued its dominance in Costa Rica during the 2000s by developing a cooperative relationship with the Ministry of Health. Although theNational Anti-Tobacco Network(RENATA), a new coalition ofgovernmental health institutions and nongovernmental tobacco control associationsformed in 2007, generated enough public pressure on Legislative Assembly to ratify the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2008 and secure Bill 17.371’s introduction in 2009 to implement the treaty, the industry once again worked through the Ministry of Health to delay the bill’s passage. However, RENATA’s abilityto alert the media and mobilize a coalition of international health advocates to effectivelyinform lawmakers on the importance of the FCTCbetween 2010 and 2012 helped pass a strong tobacco control law in March 2012. 
    Keywords: Area, Ethnic, Cultural, Gender, and Group Studies, History, Costa Rica, tobacco control legislation, tobacco industry dominance
    Date: 2012–05–29
  4. By: David Forero; Norberto Rojas; Roberto Steiner
    Abstract: Resumen Ejecutivo: A la luz de lo ocurrido en los últimos años, es factible que América Latina sea la región con mejor proyección económica durante la próxima década. En el contexto regional, Colombia tiene una posición privilegiada dada su estabilidad política y el promisorio desarrollo de su estructura productiva. Sin embargo, históricamente el país ha mostrado restricciones de carácter estructural al crecimiento, que han impedido que el potencial supere el 4,5%. Uno de los objetivos de la política económica debería ser, entonces, remover estas rigideces para permitirle al país aprovechar de forma óptima las oportunidades que se presenten en los próximos años. En este documento se identifican algunas de las principales distorsiones que tienen como origen medidas de política pública y que afectan el crecimiento de largo plazo. El principal aporte de esta investigación es la cuantificación del impacto en el próximo cuatrienio de cada una de estas distorsiones.
    Date: 2012–03–29

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