nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2012‒04‒17
seven papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Transportation and Communication Infrastructure in Latin America: Lessons from Asia By Barbara Kotschwar
  2. Diferencias étnicas en Colombia: una mirada antropométrica By Adolfo Meisel Roca; Karina Acosta O.
  3. Beneficios privados y beneficios sociales en la cadena de la manzana para la exportación en el Uruguay. By Rava, Catalina; Lanfranco, Bruno A.; Ferraro, Bruno
  4. Choques, instituciones laborales y desempleo en Colombia By Juan José Echavarría; Enrique López; Sergio Ocampo; Norberto Rodríguez
  5. Buenos Aires to Athens: The Road to Perdition By Porzecanski, Arturo C.
  6. Environmentally Related Energy Taxes in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay By Navajas, Fernando H.; Panadeiros, Monica; Natale, Oscar
  7. Willingness to pay more for water in a climate of confrontation: The case of Sucre, Bolivia By Francisco González Gómez; Jorge Guardiola; Edna Guidi Gutiérrez

  1. By: Barbara Kotschwar (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: In Latin America, inadequate transportation infrastructure has been identified as an increasingly important impediment to the region's further integration in global trade and a significant factor preventing countries from properly taking advantage of the multitude of regional, plurilateral, and bilateral trade agreements signed in the past decade and a half. This paper examines transport and communications infrastructure initiatives in Latin American and Asian regional trade arrangements and finds several lessons Asia can teach Latin America.
    Keywords: trade, infrastructure, regional trade agreements (RTAs), transport costs, transport infrastructure, cooperation, East Asia, Latin America
    JEL: F10 F15 R11 R42 R58
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iie:wpaper:wp12-6&r=lam
  2. By: Adolfo Meisel Roca; Karina Acosta O.
    Abstract: Using data from the 2010 Colombia Demographic and Health Survey and National Survey of the Nutritional Situation in Colombia (ENDS-ENSIN), we analyzed the evolution of the Colombian height trends among the birth cohort 1946-1992 by ethnic group. We find that there are statistically significant differences between the ethnic groups we considered. Those who self-recognized as afrocolombian have greater average height than the indigenous group and are also taller than those who don’t identify themselves as either of these two groups, which we refer to as others. In our analysis we also find that the height gap between afros and the others, tends to reduce in the time period we study. Moreover, the results suggest that the Colombian indigenous group has a higher potential growth of ‘biological well being’ when they improve their socioeconomic status. RESUMEN: En este trabajo estudiamos la evolución de la estatura de los colombianos nacidos entre 1946 y 1992. El análisis se realiza para los principales grupos étnicos del país. Para ello utilizamos una muestra con información antropométrica de un total de 92.953 personas de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional en Colombia (ENSIN, 2010), publicada en el 2011. Entre las principales evidencias, se encuentra que existe una diferencia significativa entre los grupos de clasificación étnica. Quienes se auto reconocieron como afro descendientes tienen estaturas promedios mayores al grupo de indígenas y mayores a quienes no se identifican con ninguno de estos dos grupos. Además, la brecha entre los afrocolombianos y los no étnicos es cada vez menor en el tiempo. También encontramos que el grupo de indígenas presenta un mayor potencial de crecimiento en el bienestar biológico y así ocurre cuando sus condiciones de vida mejoran.
    Date: 2012–04–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000102:009421&r=lam
  3. By: Rava, Catalina; Lanfranco, Bruno A.; Ferraro, Bruno
    Abstract: Este trabajo analizó el desempeño de la cadena exportadora de manzana para consumo en fresco, en Uruguay, mediante el método de la matriz de análisis de políticas (MAP). Se trabajó con la variedad Royal Gala, una de las más exportadas localmente por su temprana maduración y su buena aceptación en mercados de valor, como el europeo. Se cuantificaron los efectos de las políticas públicas (impuestos, subsidios, cargas sociales) y las eventuales fallas de mercado que afectan los distintos eslabones, estimándose las potenciales transferencias de recursos, desde o hacia la cadena. Primero se computaron los ingresos y costos en los distintos eslabones considerados: producción, transporte, procesamiento y empaque. Se calcularon los beneficios privados y sociales en toda la cadena, desde la chacra hasta el puerto. Los resultados mostraron un beneficio global de 347,57 US$/ton procesada para 2007. Los agentes privados involucrados en la cadena capturaron el 90% de este valor, dejando sobre la mesa 37,51 dólares por tonelada de manzana procesada, en forma de transferencias netas hacia otros sectores de la economía. En 2010, dicho beneficio disminuyó a 251,15 US$/ton. Los agentes privados se apropiaron del 68%, derivando en una transferencia neta de 80,58 US$/ton hacia el resto de la economía.
    Keywords: policy analysis matrix, production systems, economic efficiency, public policies, export markets, Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries, Political Economy, Public Economics, D40, D61, E62, H20,
    Date: 2011–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iniast:121682&r=lam
  4. By: Juan José Echavarría; Enrique López; Sergio Ocampo; Norberto Rodríguez
    Abstract: Este trabajo utiliza la metodología VAR-X estructural para explicar por qué creció el desempleo en Colombia desde niveles cercanos a 7% en 1995:1 hasta 19% en 2000:1, y por qué permaneció en niveles de dos dígitos durante la década siguiente. Se trató de una combinación desafortunada de choques y de instituciones laborales mal diseñadas para enfrentarlos. La participación laboral se incrementó fuertemente desde comienzos de los 1990s por motivos demográficos y como respuesta a la crisis de 1998-2000; la demanda cayó abruptamente en esos mismos años, debido a la parada súbita de flujos de capital y a una política fiscal y monetaria pro-cíclica; y la dinámica de la productividad ha sido excesivamente lenta, principalmente en los 2000s. Los costos no salariales y el salario mínimo real también han jugado un papel importante en la explicación del nivel y de la persistencia del desempleo.
    Keywords: VAR-X, desempleo, salario mínimo, costos no salariales, histéresis. Classification JEL: C32, E24, J3.
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bdr:borrec:682&r=lam
  5. By: Porzecanski, Arturo C.
    Abstract: Three sovereign defaults in the past decade have each inflicted losses of at least 70% on bondholders: Argentina, Ecuador, and now Greece. In each case, creditor rights and the rule of law were trampled, setting troubling precedents that are worrying investors involved in vulnerable European countries. In Argentina (in default since 2002), numerous arbitrary measures were taken that damaged the interests of investors; the debt relief that was demanded bore little relation to the country's capacity to pay; and court judgments and arbitral awards against the sovereign have been routinely ignored. Ecuador (2008-2009) stands as the clearest example of sovereign unwillingness to pay. Investors were blindsided, bullied, and then sacrificed as part of a personal and ideological vendetta on President Correa's part. Investor confidence in Greece was destroyed by persistently negative attitudes coming out of Berlin. The huge losses imposed on creditors were based on questionable estimates and judgments, and various troubling, expedient means were used to achieve the dubious ends. Chances are that the road to perdition for investors will soon be extended to some other capital in Europe.
    Keywords: Argentina; Ecuador; Greece; Debt; Default; Restructuring; Crisis
    JEL: F34 F21 F41
    Date: 2012–04–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:37874&r=lam
  6. By: Navajas, Fernando H.; Panadeiros, Monica; Natale, Oscar
    Abstract: We start addressing the performance of environmentally related taxes in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay and find differences in level and structure with OECD countries but with the common feature that energy taxes are prime contributors. We then model an energy tax reform process out a status quo and towards environmentally related excises, distinguishing between uniform and non-uniform tax components, positive and normative tax structures, and between non-Ramsey and Ramsey specifications. We implement the model after some effort to estimate local and global environmental costs related to energy consumption. We find a rebalancing of fuel taxes (where gasoline and diesel are main drivers) that is robust to the range of price-demand elasticity and environmental cost parameters. Environmental (almost local) gains of the reform are significant, while fiscal impacts are positive and large but do not allow to claim double dividend effects because of price increases of widespread energy inputs triggered by the reform exercise. In the case of Argentina and Bolivia pre-existing distortions in energy prices imply large increases in end-user prices to accommodate not only tax increases but also corrections of producer prices. The assessment of the distributional impact of tax reforms depends on its type (Non Ramsey vs. Ramsey) and on considering environmental benefits to compensate for negative price effects. A Non-Ramsey tax reform has a positive distributive impact in Uruguay, while large pre-existing price distortions tend to produce negative impacts in Argentina and Bolivia. Overall we recommend non-Ramsey taxes as they are more transparent and easy to implement, avoid inverse-elasticity effects on tax wedges that have nothing to do with environmental costs and have better distributional properties. Moving to multiple instruments is also recommended to integrate other externalities, deal with informality and cope with distributive impacts.
    Keywords: environmental taxes; energy; tax models
    JEL: Q40 Q51 H23
    Date: 2011–12–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:37829&r=lam
  7. By: Francisco González Gómez (Dpto. Economía Aplicada); Jorge Guardiola (Universidad Cardenal Herrera); Edna Guidi Gutiérrez (Instituto Iberoamericano de Municipalistas)
    Date: 2012–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ivi:wpasec:2012-03&r=lam

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