nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2011‒05‒07
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Determinantes del subempleo en Colombia: Un enfoque a través de la compensación salarial By Rafael Puyana; Mario Andrés Ramos; Héctor Zárate
  2. Doble jornada escolar y calidad de la educación en Colombia By Leonardo Bonilla Mejía
  3. Commitment to Equity Assessment (CEQ) A Diagnostic Framework to Assess Governments' Fiscal Policies Handbook By Nora Lustig
  4. The Decline in Inequality in Latin America: How Much, Since When and Why By Nora Lustig; Luis F. López Calva; Eduardo Ortiz-Juarez

  1. By: Rafael Puyana; Mario Andrés Ramos; Héctor Zárate
    Abstract: En este documento se estudian las tendencias del subempleo y las características de los trabajadores subempleados, con el fin de establecer un marco bajo el cual se pueden analizar los determinantes del subempleo. Posteriormente, se propone el uso de un modelo teórico desarrollado por Azariadis (1975) que afirma que en equilibrio puede darse un diferencial positivo de salarios para los subempleados frente a los no subempleados. La razón detrás de este diferencial es la existencia de incertidumbre y riesgo sobre los salarios para aquellas personas que no cuentan con un contrato pleno. Tomando como base este resultado, se aplica un modelo econométrico para estimar la compensación salarial siguiendo a Moretti (2000). Los resultados indican que existe una compensación salarial a los subempleados por insuficiencia de horas, mostrando que para este grupo los salarios por hora compensan la incertidumbre asociada al subempleo. Sin embargo, no hay evidencia de compensación salarial para los subempleados por competencias y por ingresos. Por ello, es posible que en estas categorías existan mercados segmentados, en el que los individuos se ven obligados a aceptar estos trabajos a pesar de que no compensan vía salario el mayor riesgo que asumen.
    Date: 2011–04–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000094:008337&r=lam
  2. By: Leonardo Bonilla Mejía
    Abstract: La calidad de la educación es uno de los principales determinantes del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo. El principal objetivo del presente documento es evaluar si la doble jornada escolar tiene efectos negativos sobre la calidad de la educación en Colombia. Para esto se estima el efecto local promedio del tratamiento a partir de regresiones con variables instrumentales. Los resultados son consistentes con la evidencia internacional: estudiar en jornada completa tiene un impacto positivo sobre los resultados académicos, especialmente cuando se compara con los estudiantes de la jornada de la tarde. Además, se aproximan los costos fijos de la implementación de una jornada diurna única en Colombia. Se trata sin duda de una suma considerable, pero alcanzable, sobre todo si se compara con el presupuesto de inversión de otras áreas. ABSTRACT: Quality of education is one of the most important determinants of economic growth and development. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate if double-shift schooling has a negative effect on the quality of education in Colombia. Instrumental variables regressions are used to estimate the local average treatment effects. Results are consistent with international evidence: Attending single-shift schools has a positive impact on academic performance, particularly if compared to students attending the afternoon shift. The fixed costs of implementing a single-shift school system in Colombia are also estimated. Without any doubt, it is a very big investment, yet reachable, especially when compared to the public expenditures on other areas.
    Date: 2011–04–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000102:008352&r=lam
  3. By: Nora Lustig (Department of Economics, Tulane University)
    Abstract: Fiscal policy can change poverty and inequality substantially or little depending on the government’s redistributive effort. We develop a diagnostic framework to assess how aligned fiscal policies are with supporting a minimum living standard and human capital accumulation, as well as reducing inequality. The Commitment to Equity Assessment (CEQ) evaluates efforts based on whether governments: i. collect and allocate enough resources to support a minimum living standard for all; ii. collect and distribute resources equitably; iii. ensure spending is fiscally sustainable and that programs are of good quality and incentive compatible; iv. collect and publish relevant information as well as are subject to independent evaluations. The CEQ relies on inequality, poverty and tax and benefit incidence analyses.
    Keywords: poverty, inequality, fiscal incidence, social policy, Latin America
    JEL: H5 H51 H52 H53 O15
    Date: 2011–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tul:wpaper:1119&r=lam
  4. By: Nora Lustig (Department of Economics, Tulane University); Luis F. López Calva (Poverty in the Latin America and the Caribbean Vicepresidency, World Bank); Eduardo Ortiz-Juarez (RBLAC-UNDP, Mexico and World Bank)
    Abstract: Between 2000 and 2009, the Gini coefficient declined in 13 of 17 Latin American countries for which comparable data exist. The decline was statistically significant and robust to changes in the time interval, inequality measures and data sources. In depth country studies for Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru suggest that there are two phenomena which underlie this trend: (i) a fall in the premium to skilled labor (as measured by returns to education); and (ii) higher and more progressive government transfers. The fall in the premium to skills results from a combination of supply and demand factors and, in Argentina and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil, from more active labor market policies as well.
    Keywords: Income inequality, wage gap, government transfers, Latin America
    JEL: O15 H53 J48
    Date: 2011–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tul:wpaper:1118&r=lam

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