nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2010‒11‒27
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Mercado Laboral y Reformas en Bolivia By Beatriz Muriel; Luis Carlos Jemio
  2. Fiscal policy in Latin America: better after all? By Daude, Christian; Melguizo, Ángel; Neut, Alejandro
  3. Decomposing the gender wage gap with sample selection adjustment: evidence from Colombia By Alejandro Badel; Ximena Peña
  4. Macroeconomia estruturalista do desenvolvimento By Pereira, Luiz Carlos Bresser; Gala, Paulo Sérgio de Oliveira Simões
  5. Do antigo ao novo desenvolvimentismo na américa latina By Pereira, Luiz Carlos Bresser

  1. By: Beatriz Muriel (Institute for Advanced Development Studies); Luis Carlos Jemio (Institute for Advanced Development Studies)
    Abstract: El estudio presenta un panorama de las reformas sociales y económicas implementadas en Bolivia desde 1985, en su relación e incidencia con el funcionamiento del mercado de trabajo. Inicialmente, se destaca la efectividad de las llamadas Reformas Estructurales, aplicadas durante 1985-2005, en la generación de la estabilidad macroeconómica; en la captación de inversión extranjera directa, en la apertura de mercados y en la disminución de la pobreza (medida por Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas). Sin embargo, se observa que las medidas destinadas a crear empleos decentes fueron escasas y los rubros favorecidos por las reformas crearon pocas fuentes de trabajo. El nuevo gobierno, que ascendió al poder en 2006, aumentó los programas sociales y revirtió varias reformas implementadas durante 1985-2005. No obstante, las políticas públicas se concentraron en los mismos rubros que las anteriores reformas, descuidando los problemas en torno a la generación de buenos empleos en Bolivia. En este escenario, la fuerza laboral urbana continuó con su propia dinámica de expansión, sobrepasando en muchos casos la demanda laboral. Como resultado, muchos trabajadores no-calificados generaron sus propios empleos, con bajos ingresos y productividad. En contraste, los trabajadores calificados fueron favorecidos por las reformas y los sectores beneficiados por éstas; lo que condujo a un aumento en el premio salarial por calificación en el tiempo. Por otro lado, la fuerza laboral rural siguió empleada en su mayoría en el sector agropecuario de subsistencia; no obstante, la migración campo-ciudad llevó a la disminución de la población ocupada en estas regiones y, desde aquí, promovió algunas mejoras en la productividad e ingresos. El estudio concluye señalando que las reformas no han generado mejores empleos, siendo fundamental establecer políticas que dinamicen la demanda laboral, mejorando el clima de negocios y propiciando mayores inversiones que busquen expandir principalmente el sector industrial, ya que es intensivo en mano de obra no-calificada, puede beneficiarse del mercado mundial y del desarrollo tecnológico, y está concentra en las áreas urbanas.
    Keywords: Bolivia, ingresos laborales, salarios, desigualdad, políticas sociales
    JEL: E20 E60 J08 J20 J43 J83 R23
    Date: 2010–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:adv:wpaper:201007&r=lam
  2. By: Daude, Christian; Melguizo, Ángel; Neut, Alejandro
    Abstract: This paper analyses fiscal policy for several economies in Latin America, from the early nineties to the 2009 crisis. We present original estimates of cyclically-adjusted public revenues for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay implementing the standardised OECD methodology and extending it to include commodity cycles, which have a direct and significant effect on the fiscal balance of several Latin American countries. Based on these estimates, we evaluate the size of automatic tax stabilisers and the cyclicality of discretionary fiscal policy. Additionally, we highlight the uncertainty stemming from the estimation of the output gap, due to large and simultaneous cyclical, temporary and permanent shocks in several Latin American economies. --
    Keywords: fiscal policy,business cycle,public finances,structural balance
    JEL: E62 H30 H60
    Date: 2010
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ifwedp:201024&r=lam
  3. By: Alejandro Badel; Ximena Peña
    Abstract: Despite the remarkable improvement of female labor market characteristics, a sizeable gender wage gap exists in Colombia. We employ quantile regression techniques to examine the degree to which current small differences in the distribution of observable characteristics can explain the gender gap. We find that the gap is largely explained by gender differences in the rewards to labor market characteristics and not by differences in the distribution of characteristics. We claim that Colombian women experience both a “glass ceiling effect’’ and also (what we call) a “quicksand floor effect” because gender differences in returns to characteristics primarily affect women at the top and the bottom of the distribution. Also, self selection into the labor force is crucial for gender gaps: if all women participated in the labor force, the observed gap would be roughly 50% larger at all quantiles.>
    Keywords: Wages ; Discrimination in employment ; Colombia
    Date: 2010
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2010-045&r=lam
  4. By: Pereira, Luiz Carlos Bresser; Gala, Paulo Sérgio de Oliveira Simões
    Abstract: Structuralist development macroeconomics. This paper presents some basic ideas and models of a structuralist development macroeconomics (the tendencies to the overvaluation of the exchange rate and the tendency of wages to grow below productivity, the critique of growth with foreign savings, and a new model of the Dutch disease) that complement and actualize the thought of the Latin-American structuralist school that developed around ECLAC from the late 1940s to the 1960s. On the other hand, it suggests that a new national development strategy based on the experience of fast growing Asian countries is emerging; and argues that only the countries that adopt such strategy based on growth with domestic savings, fiscal and foreign trade responsibility and a competitive exchange rate will be able to catch up.
    Date: 2010–11–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fgv:eesptd:275&r=lam
  5. By: Pereira, Luiz Carlos Bresser
    Abstract: O fracasso do Consenso de Washington e das políticas macroeconômicas baseadasem altas taxas de juros e taxas de câmbio não competitivas em gerar crescimento econômicolevou a América Latina à necessidade de formular estratégias nacionais de desenvolvimento.O novo desenvolvimentismo é uma estratégia alternativa, não apenas à ortodoxiaconvencional mas também ao antigo nacional-desenvolvimentismo latino-americano.Enquanto o nacional-desenvolvimentismo se baseava na tendência à deterioração dos termosde troca e, adotando uma abordagem microeconômica, propunha planejamento econômico eindustrialização, o novo desenvolvimentismo assume que a industrialização foi alcançada,embora em graus diferentes para cada país, e argumenta que, a fim de garantir taxas rápidasde crescimento e alcançar os países desenvolvidos, o que precisa ser neutralizado é atendência da taxa de câmbio à sobrevalorização. Contrariamente às alegações do pensamentoeconômico convencional, um Estado capaz continua sendo o instrumento chave para garantiro desenvolvimento econômico, e a política industrial continua a ser necessária; mas o quedistingue a nova abordagem é principalmente o crescimento com poupança interna, em lugardo crescimento com poupança externa, uma política macroeconômica baseada em taxasmoderadas de juros e uma taxa de câmbio competitiva, em lugar das altas taxas de juros e dasmoedas sobrevalorizadas preconizadas pela ortodoxia convencional.
    Date: 2010–11–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fgv:eesptd:274&r=lam

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