nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2010‒07‒03
three papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Inequality of Opportunities in the Educational Attainment of Chilean Students By Osvaldo Larrañaga; Amanda Telias
  2. Decentralization And Education Performance: A First View To The Brazilian Process By Leme, Maria Carolina; D. Paredes, Ricardo; Portela, André
  3. Escolaridade E O Diferencial De Rendimentos Entre O Setor Privado E O Setor Público No Brasil By Braga, Breno; Firpo, Sergio; Gonzaga, Gustavo

  1. By: Osvaldo Larrañaga; Amanda Telias
    Abstract: This study measures the contribution of inequality of opportunities on the educational attainment of Chilean students, captured through the SIMCE test scores. For this, it employs a recently introduced methodology that quantifies the effect of exogenous and endogenous factors on socioeconomic outcomes, using parametric and non-parametric techniques. The study applies this methodology for the SIMCE tests in Mathematics and Language in the 1999 to 2007 period for fourth grade primary, eighth grade primary and for second grade of secondary school. The results show a reduction in the percentage of inequality of SIMCE results arising from exogenous circumstances, which can be interpreted as a decrease in inequality of opportunities. This conclusion is robust to the estimation technique and the schooling grade. In addition, the results reveal that inequality of opportunities is greater in secondary school than in primary school.
    JEL: I21 D39 D63
    Date: 2010–06
  2. By: Leme, Maria Carolina; D. Paredes, Ricardo; Portela, André
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of the decentralization in educational system that is taking place in Brazil inthe last decade, as a result of several laws that encourage municipalities to invest in fundamental education.The proficiency tests undertaken by the government allows to follow some public schools in two points intime. Therefore we were able to create an experimental group with the schools that were under state system inthe SAEB exam and have migrated to the municipality system by the time of Prova Brasil and a control groupwith the schools that were under the state system between the two exams and compare the difference in theirresults using a fixed effect panel data analysis. The difference in difference estimator indicates that there is nosignificant change in the performance of the students.
    Date: 2010–06–16
  3. By: Braga, Breno; Firpo, Sergio; Gonzaga, Gustavo
    Abstract: We study the determinants of the public-private earning gap for differentlevels of schooling of Brazilian workers. First, using the current earnings as thevariable of interest, it is estimated an earnings gap favorable to the less educatedworkers from the public sector. On the other hand, for workers with higherqualification the earnings gap disappears or becomes favorable to the privatesector. Further, we considerate the different regimes of retirement in Brazil bycreating the variable Present Value of Work Contract (PVWC). This variable is ameasure of the life time earnings for each individual of our database. Differentfrom the results of the current earnings, we found that the PVWC gap is favorableto the public sector even for the most schooling group of workers.
    Date: 2010–06–16

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