nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2010‒06‒18
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. La Incidencia Distributiva del Impuesto a las Gasolinas en Chile By Johanna Jimenez
  2. The insurance industry in Brazil: a long-term view By Marcelo de Paiva Abreu; Felipe Tamega Fernandes
  3. The Persistent Gender Earnings Gap in Colombia, 1994-2006 By Alejandro Hoyos; Hugo Ñopo; Ximena Peña
  4. Factors that predispose youth to risk in Mexico and Chile By Cunningham, Wendy; Bagby, Emilie

  1. By: Johanna Jimenez (ILADES-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado)
    Abstract: En este trabajo se analiza la incidencia distributiva del impuesto específico a los combustibles en Chile, usando para ello la V y VI Encuestas de Presupuestos Familiares. La incidencia se calcula tanto respecto a la distribución de ingreso como de gasto, de tal forma de considerar las potenciales diferencia entre ingreso transitorio y permanente. Se estima el Índice de Suits como medida de la progresividad del impuesto y utilizando bootstrapping se calculan intervalos de confianza que permitan comparar estadísticamente cambios en la incidencia frente a cambios en el impuesto. Los resultados muestran que el impuesto es leve o moderadamente progresivo, con un grado de progresividad menor respecto al ingreso que al gasto. La simulación de una rebaja en la tasa de impuestos de casi 42%, como la implementada en 2008, muestra que en términos de incidencia su efecto es reducir mínimamente la progresividad del impuesto.
    Keywords: Incidencia Tributaria, Impuesto a los Combustibles, Índice de Suits
    JEL: H22 C15 L9
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ila:ilades:inv224&r=lam
  2. By: Marcelo de Paiva Abreu (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro); Felipe Tamega Fernandes (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit)
    Abstract: This paper surveys the formation and development of insurance business in Brazil. It describes its origins, from the colonial times and imperial era to recent events. Particular attention is given to regulatory changes, showing how they evolved in response to macroeconomic shocks that affected the Brazilian economy during this period.
    Keywords: Insurance, Brazil, Regulation
    JEL: G22 G38 L50 N46
    Date: 2010–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hbs:wpaper:10-109&r=lam
  3. By: Alejandro Hoyos; Hugo Ñopo; Ximena Peña
    Abstract: This paper surveys gender wage gaps in Colombia from 1994 to 2006, using matching comparisons to examine the extent to which individuals with similar human capital characteristics earn different wages. Three sub-periods are considered: 1994-1998; 2000-2001; and 2002- 2006. The gaps dropped from the first to the second period but remained almost unchanged between the second and the third. The gender wage gap remains largely unexplained after controlling for different combinations of socio-demographics and job-related characteristics, reaching between 13 and 23 percent of average female wages. That gap is lower at the middle of the wage distributions than the extremes, possibly due to a gender-equalizing effect of the minimum wage. Moreover, the gap is more pronounced for low-productivity workers and those who need flexibility to participate in labor markets. This suggests that policy interventions in the form of labor market regulations may have little impact on reducing gender wage gaps.
    Date: 2010–05–23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000089:007094&r=lam
  4. By: Cunningham, Wendy; Bagby, Emilie
    Abstract: About half of Latin America’s youth are considered"at risk,"meaning that they engage in or are at risk of engaging in risky behaviors that are detrimental to their own development and to the well-being of their societies. While child psychologists identify many factors that may cause some youth to engage in at-risk behaviors and others not to, only empirical evidence can identify the set that is relevant to a particular population. This paper uses youth surveys from Chile and Mexico to test which of a large set of potential factors are correlated with a range of risky behaviors among youth. These factors range from relationships with parents and institutions to household behaviors (abuse, discipline techniques) to social exclusion. The authors use stepwise regressions to sort out which variables best explain the observed variance in seven different risky behaviors. They find that higher socioeconomic status, a good relationship with parents and peers, strong connection with local governmental institutions and schools, urban residence, younger age, and spirituality emerge as key explanatory factors for all seven behaviors for boys and girls in both countries. This points to a wider range of policy entry points than currently used, including targeting parents and the relationship with schools.
    Keywords: Adolescent Health,Youth and Governance,Population Policies,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Gender and Health
    Date: 2010–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5333&r=lam

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