nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2010‒06‒11
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Linking Globalization to Poverty in Asia, Latin America and Africa By Nissanke, Machiko; Thorbecke, Erik
  2. EL MERCADO LABORAL COLOMBIANO: Tendencias de largo plazo y sugerencias de política By Hugo López Castaño
  3. The (Indispensable) Middle Class in Developing Countries; or, The Rich a the Rest, Not the Poor and the Rest By Nancy Birdsall
  4. A summary and update of developing annuities markets : the experience of Chile By Rocha, Roberto; Rudolph, Heinz P.

  1. By: Nissanke, Machiko; Thorbecke, Erik
    Abstract: Despite the enormous potential of globalization in accelerating economic growth through greater integration into the world economy the impact of globalization on poverty reduction has been uneven. Asia has been the major beneficiary of globalization where high growth rates and its labor-intensive pattern contributed to a spectacular reduction in poverty. In contrast, the integration process in Latin America did not contribute to accelerating growth and employment and even led, in some instances, to an informalization of the labor force. In spite of opening up, the failure of sub-Saharan Africa to diversify and undergo structural transformation has led to the persistence of low growth and debilitating poverty. While the impact of globalization on poverty is context-specific, we argue that countries intent on benefitting from globalization need to adopt a pro-active stand in formulating regional and national strategies to enhance the potentially positive effects of globalization and moderate the negative effects.
    Keywords: Globalization, Poverty, Latin America, Asia, Africa
    Date: 2010
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:pb2010-03&r=lam
  2. By: Hugo López Castaño
    Abstract: Aunque, en el largo plazo, el crecimiento del empleo moderno urbano se ha desacelerado, durante esta década, al menos hasta el 2007, su desempeño fue bastante aceptable. Sin embargo, ha estado sesgado a favor del más educado y contra el menos educado, en contraste con la dotación educativa de la fuerza de trabajo. De ahí la elevadísima rotación de personal asalariado simple (su reemplazo permanente por personal calificado); de ahí el auge del empleo informal, que subió para no bajar con la crisis de finales de los ochenta y que ha aumentado más con la crisis reciente; de ahí la existencia e intensificación del ciclo de vida laboral que, con la edad, lleva a los menos educados de los empleos asalariados a los informales. La discriminación contra el trabajo poco educado –una tendencia internacional- se ha agravado por la evolución del salario mínimo, que no ayuda a los más pobres y en cambio perjudica la generación de empleo no calificado, y puede acentuarse más hacia el futuro por la forma en que se están dando los incentivos a la inversión de capital. El crecimiento económico es condición necesaria para corregir estos problemas estructurales de nuestro mercado laboral; pero como no es condición suficiente se requieren estrategias complementarias. Se sugiere -siguiendo el ejemplo Chileno- conformar una Misión, compuesta por académicos extranjeros y nacionales de todas las tendencias y que se reúna con las principales fuerzas sociales, encargada de examinar el tema y presentar recomendaciones en un plazo breve. Debería considerar una combinación de estrategias: de demanda (una política para el salario mínimo, qué hacer con los parafiscales y los estímulos tributarios a la inversión); estrategias de oferta (calificación de la fuerza laboral y acceso a la educación superior de la masa de bachilleres pobres), reformas a la seguridad social (pensiones para los informales; financiación de la salud con impactos sobre el empleo; seguro de desempleo) y programas, tipo Empleo en Acción que generen empleo moderno para los más pobres, urbanos y rurales.
    Date: 2010–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000094:007046&r=lam
  3. By: Nancy Birdsall
    Abstract: In this paper an argument is made that the concept of inclusive growth should go beyond the traditional emphasis on the poor (and the rest) and take into account changes in the size and economic command of the group conventionally defined as neither poor nor rich, i.e., the middle class. (Working Paper No. 207
    Keywords: global, economics, tradeoffs, fiscal burden, donors, development, concept, inclusive growth, traditional, emphasis, economic command, conventionally, central, economic goal, middle class, rich, cash transfers, country, traditional poor, developing countries,
    Date: 2010
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:2507&r=lam
  4. By: Rocha, Roberto; Rudolph, Heinz P.
    Abstract: The rapid growth of the market for retirement products in Chile has its origins in the pension reform that was implemented in 1981. But the successful development of an active annuity market also reflects many other factors. This paper summarizes and updates an earlier longer study on the development of the Chilean annuity market. The update focuses on the numerous changes that were introduced in 2008. The most striking aspect of the Chilean experience is the very high rate of annuitization. This has been linked to the restrictions that have been applied to lump-sum withdrawals, the offer of inflation-protected annuities, and the robust prudential regulation of providers. But the level of annuitization has also been supported by the annuitization incentives provided to early retirees and the influence of brokers and sales agents. The recent regulatory changes have weakened the impact of the last two factors, while strengthening the demand for annuities at normal retirement.
    Keywords: Debt Markets,Pensions&Retirement Systems,Insurance&Risk Mitigation,Emerging Markets,Non Bank Financial Institutions
    Date: 2010–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5325&r=lam

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