nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2009‒12‒05
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Is Violence Against Union Members in Colombia Systematic and Targeted? By Daniel Mejía; María José Uribe
  2. Pobreza y vulnerabilidad social en Colombia By Nelson Alvis Guzmán; Luis Alvis Estrada; Robinson Castro Ávila; Juan Correa Reyes
  3. Impacto económico de la mortalidad por sida en Colombia 1997 - 2001 By Nelson Alvis Guzmán; Juan Correa Reyes; Carlos López Martelo; Guillermo Pattigno Orozco
  4. Volatilidade dos fluxos financeiros e fuga de capitais: uma análise exploratória da vulnerabilidade externa no Brasil By Vanessa da Costa Val Munhoz; Gilberto Libânio
  5. Evidence of neighborhood e?ects on educational performance in the chilean school voucher system By Dante Contreras; Patricia Medrano
  6. Efecto de una mayor cobertura de salas cuna en la participación laboral femenina: evidencia de Chile By Jenny Encina; Claudia Martínez

  1. By: Daniel Mejía; María José Uribe
    Abstract: Violence against union members in Colombia has been at the center of a debate for several years now. Union leaders and NGOs in Colombia and abroad continuously argue that free trade agreements with Colombia should be blocked based on the failure of the current Colombian government to protect union members from targeted killings. We first look at the evolution over time of the indicators for violence against union members and union leaders. In particular we show (using different indicators and data sources) that violence against unionists in Colombia has steadily declined over the last seven years. Then, we use available panel data to study the determinants of violence against union members and union leaders. We make special emphasis on testing the claim that a greater intensity in the characteristic activities of unions leads to more violence against union members and union leaders. Using different data sets, data sources and estimation methods, we find no statistical evidence supporting this claim. These results suggest that, on average, violence against unionists in Colombia is neither systematic nor targeted.
    Date: 2009–11–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000089:006147&r=lam
  2. By: Nelson Alvis Guzmán; Luis Alvis Estrada; Robinson Castro Ávila; Juan Correa Reyes
    Abstract: En el presente estudio se realiza una revisión y se explora la relación entre los conceptos de pobreza y vulnerabilidad social. Se asume la primera como escasez de ingresos monetarios para cubrir necesidades básicas alimentarias y no alimentarias de los hogares y la segunda como el impacto que provocan eventos económicos, sociales y ambientales extremos, sobre las capacidades de las personas y las comunidades. Se utiliza la revisión de estadísticas latinoamericanas y se revisa la situación de Colombia a partir de fuentes secundarias de información. Se observan y describen sinergias entre pobreza y vulnerabilidad, como elementos esenciales que se encuentran en los ámbitos del trabajo, del capital humano, del capital social y del capital físico.
    Date: 2009–11–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000356:006199&r=lam
  3. By: Nelson Alvis Guzmán; Juan Correa Reyes; Carlos López Martelo; Guillermo Pattigno Orozco
    Abstract: Objetivo. Determinar el impacto económico de la mortalidad por SIDA en Colombia, 1997 – 2001. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo que analizó los datos de mortalidad del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas de Colombia, estimó Años Perdidos de Vida Potencial –APVP- y Años Perdidos de Vida Potencial Productiva –APVPP- utilizando el Programa EPIDAT 3.0. Para valorar el impacto económico se usó la metodología desarrollada por el Grupo de Economía de la Salud de la Universidad de Cartagena. Resultados. Para el período se registraron 9,484 muertes por SIDA, 7,848 en hombres (87,7%) y 1,635 en mujeres (12.3%). La tasa de mortalidad por 100 mil personas fue de 4,6 (7,5 para hombres y 1,6 para mujeres) y la razón de mortalidad hombre mujer fue de 4,8:1. Los APVP fueron 363,911, (media anual de 72,782). La tasa de APVP por 1000 habitante fue 1,56 al inicio y 1,98 al final del periodo. La contribución media de cada caso fue de 38,4 APVP. Los APVPP por SIDA fueron 333,612 (91.7% del total) que representan una pérdida económica de entre 641 y 1,351 millones de dólares PPA de 2001 equivalentes a entre 1,5 a 2,9 del PIB de Colombia del 2001. Conclusiones. El presente estudio muestra como el SIDA genera pérdidas económicas debido a mermas en la productividad individual por disminución de capacidades en el trabajo y pérdidas del capital humano por muertes en la población económicamente activa
    Date: 2009–11–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000358:006210&r=lam
  4. By: Vanessa da Costa Val Munhoz (Cedeplar-UFMG and UFU); Gilberto Libânio (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: In recent years, Brazilian economic performance has been influenced by increasingly volatile financial flows and episodes of capital flight, which have occurred mainly due to external events, out of control or influence of the domestic monetary authorities. This paper aims to measure the volatility of financial flows in Brazil and to apply different measures of capital flight, in order to analyze the external vulnerability of the Brazilian economy. The main goal is to compare the volatility indicators and measures of capital flight in order to evaluate which indicator best reveals the potential for reversion of financial flows to Brazil and best captures external vulnerability in the economy. Our empirical results suggest that there is a close relationship between the two indicators examined. While volatility of financial flows may capture moments when Brazil is facing a period of inflows of international resources and the transition to sharp reversals and large negative transfers, capital flight may indicate the sensitivity of capital flows toward Brazil due to unstable factors and external shocks. In this sense, the capital flight as the one which occurred in 2008 may be explained by high volatility of capital flows.
    Keywords: Brazil, external vulnerability, financial flows, capital flight, instability
    JEL: F32 F36 G11 G15
    Date: 2009–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdp:texdis:td371&r=lam
  5. By: Dante Contreras; Patricia Medrano
    Abstract: This paper uses alternative measures of neighborhood quality to study its impact on student performance in school. The Chilean voucher-based education system allows us to test separately for neighborhood and traditional in-classroom peer effects, which have been traditionally empha- sized by the literature. We use the Human Development Index reported by United Nations, and the relative number of books in public libraries at the county level, to measure neighborhood quality. We ?nd that a 5 basis point increase in the HDI Index, is related to an increase of 1 to 4 points in the SIMCE test, depending on the speci?cation. The e?ect is equivalent to half a year increase in mothers education (one additional year achieves a 7 point increase in SIMCE scores). Interestingly, the e?ect remains when we look at the sample of random movers.
    JEL: O18 Z13 J18
    Date: 2009–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:udc:wpaper:wp302&r=lam
  6. By: Jenny Encina; Claudia Martínez
    Abstract: La provisión publica de salas cunas en Chile aumento en un 70% entre el 2005 y 2006. Esta variación exógena en la disponibilidad de cuidado infantil a nivel comunal es utilizada en este estudio para estimar su efecto en la participación laboral femenina (PLF). A pesar de esta fuerte expansión se encuentra que la provisión de salas cunas no ha tenido efecto en la PLF. Razones culturales e institucionales pueden explicar este resultado: la visión tradicional del rol de la mujer en el cuidado de los niños, baja cobertura de las salas cunas (al 2006), jornada de atención de salas cunas y proceso de postulación a ellas entre otros.
    JEL: J22 H4
    Date: 2009–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:udc:wpaper:wp303&r=lam

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