New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2009‒05‒09
five papers chosen by

  1. Explaining protectionism support: the role of economic factors By Juliette Milgram; Máximo Rossi; Natalia Melgar
  2. The Evolution of the Intergenerational Mobility of Education in Chile by Cohorts: Facts and Possible Causes By Claudio Sapelli.
  3. On Coase and Hotelling By Juan Pablo Montero; Matti Liski.
  4. Market and Home Production: Gender Differences in Brazil By Madalozzo, Regina
  5. Meritocracy and Innovation: Is There a Link? Empirical Evidence from Firms in Brazil By Barros, Henrique M.; Lazzarini, Sergio G.

  1. By: Juliette Milgram (Universidad de Granada); Máximo Rossi (Universidad de la República Uruguay Constituyente); Natalia Melgar (Universidad de la República Uruguay Constituyente)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate some factors shaping individual support for protectionism that have not been studied previously. We examine a heterogeneous sample of thirty countries which includes both small and large and developed and developing countries using data from the 2003 International Social Survey Program (ISSP). We confirm the influence of social status, relative income, values and attachments on preferences for trade policies and the fact that skilled people are also more likely to be pro-trade. We also verify previous findings concerning the fact that individual¿s opinions match with how their revenue could be affected in the medium or long term by trade liberalization. We highlight other important factors influencing public opinion towards protectionism: individual support for protectionism is also affected by the macroeconomic context and size of their country of residence. Este trabajo analiza cuales son los factores que explican el apoyo de los individuos a políticas proteccionistas incluyendo características tanto del individuo como de su país de residencia, que no han sido incluidos en trabajos previos. Para ello, se utiliza una muestra heterogénea de treinta países que incluye economías de distinto tamaño, países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo. La base de datos corresponde a la encuesta realizada en el año 2003 por la red International Social Survey Program (ISSP). Se confirma que el status social, el ingreso relativo, los valores y los apegos juegan un rol significativo en la determinación de las preferencias por el libre comercio. En segundo lugar, se constata que los individuos con mayores niveles de educación tienden a preferir el libre comercio. Además, se verifica que las opiniones de los individuos son determinadas por la percepción de cómo afecta la liberalización comercial a su ingreso en el medio y largo plazo. Por ultimo, se destacan factores adicionales relevantes en la determinación de las actitudes individuales frente al proteccionismo: el contexto macroeconómico y el tamaño relativo del país de residencia.
    Keywords: Preferencias, apoyo al proteccionismo, libre comercio, políticas comerciales, mercantilismo, nacionalismo Preferences, protectionism support, free trade, trade policies, mercantilist, nationalism.
    JEL: D01 F13
    Date: 2009–04
  2. By: Claudio Sapelli. (Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.)
    Abstract: We estimate the evolution of intergenerational mobility of education in Chile for synthetic cohorts born between 1930 and 1978. The correlation coefficient between children and parent education falls from 0.67 for the cohort born in 1930 to 0.41 for that born in 1956, followed by stagnation. We test three explanations for this evolution. The first that mobility was driven by laws that made further education mandatory. The second that mobility stopped because of a financial restriction either at age 18 or at birth. Finally, we test whether the increase in single parent households explains the stagnation in mobility.
    Keywords: Intergenerational mobility, Synthetic cohorts and Education
    JEL: J62 I20
    Date: 2009
  3. By: Juan Pablo Montero (Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.); Matti Liski.
    Abstract: It has been long recognized that an exhaustible-resource monopsonist faces a commitment problem similar to that of a durable-good monopolist. Indeed, H¨orner and Kamien (2004) demonstrate that the two problems are formally equivalent under full commitment. We show that there is no such equivalence in the absence of commitment. The existence of a choke price at which the monopsonist adopts the substitute (backstop) supply divides the surplus between the buyer and the sellers in a way that is unique to the resource model. Resource sellers receive a surplus share independently of their cost heterogeneity; a result in sharp contrast with the durable-good monopoly logic. The resource buyer can distort the equilibrium through delayed purchases, but the Coase conjecture arises under extreme patience (zero discount rate).
    Keywords: durable goods, exhaustible resources, Coase conjecture
    JEL: D42 L12 Q30
    Date: 2009
  4. By: Madalozzo, Regina
    Date: 2009–10
  5. By: Barros, Henrique M.; Lazzarini, Sergio G.
    Date: 2009–10

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