New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2009‒04‒25
three papers chosen by

  1. Elasticity of cigarette demand in Argentina: An empirical analysis using vector error-correction model. By Eugenio Martínez; Raúl Mejía; Eliseo Pérez Stable
  2. Are Free Trade Agreements Contagious? By Richard Baldwin; Dany Jaimovich
  3. Violencia de género y violencia sexual en Colombia By Diana Carolina Pinzón

  1. By: Eugenio Martínez (Instituto de Estaudios Laborales (IELDE), Universidad Nacional de Salta); Raúl Mejía (Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad and Programa de Medicina Interna General, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina); Eliseo Pérez Stable (Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Medical Effectiveness Research Center for Diverse Populations, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, USA.)
    Abstract: Is objective this paper estimate empirically the short and long-term effects on cigarette demand in Argentina based on changes in cigarette price and income. We analyzed data from the Ministry of Economy and Production of Argentina. Analysis was based on monthly time-series data between 1994 and 2004. The econometrics specification is a linear double-logarithmic form using cigarettes consumption per person older than 14 y. as dependent variable and real income per person older than 14 y. and the real average price of cigarettes sales as independent variables. Empirical analyses were done in three steps: 1) To verify the order of integration of the variables using the augmented Dickey-Fuller test; 2) To test for co-integration using the Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood approach to capture the long-term effects; and 3) To utilize the Vector error-correction model to capture the short-run dynamics of the variables.Results: The empirical results showed that in the long-term period the demand for cigarettes in Argentina is affected by changes in real income and real average price of cigarettes. The value of income elasticity is equal to 0.54 while the value of own-price elasticity is equal to –0.34. The results using vector error-correction model estimation suggest that the short-term cigarette demand in Argentina is independent of price (not statistically significant). The value of the short-term income elasticity is equal to 0.49. A simulation exercise show that increasing the prices in a 120% we can obtain a maximum of revenues from cigarette tax and obtain also a big impact in the fall of the total consumption of cigarettes in the country.
    Keywords: Price elasticity, cigarette demand, Tobacco control
    JEL: D12 I18
    Date: 2008–12
  2. By: Richard Baldwin; Dany Jaimovich
    Abstract: This paper presents empirical evidence on the extent to which FTAs are gcontagioush, using empirical techniques inspired by the study of contagion in exchange rate crises. Applying a series of different econometric techniques, it tests the null hypothesis that the signing of an FTA between one nationfs trade partners has no affect on the probability of the nation signing a new FTA. The hypothesis is tested against other political, economical and geographical determinants of the FTA formation previously stated in the literature, finding evidence that the contagion phenomenon is present in different specifications and samples.
    Keywords: Contagion Effect, Free Trade Agreements and International Trade
    JEL: F13
    Date: 2009–04
  3. By: Diana Carolina Pinzón
    Abstract: Es común sostener que la violencia de género y la violencia sexual son el mismo tipo de violencia y que ambas están relacionadas estrictamente con la mujer. En este documento se elabora una distinción conceptual entre las similitudes y diferencias entre la violencia de género y la violencia sexual, haciendo especial énfasis en la afirmación que cualquier ser humano puede ser víctima de ambos tipos de violencia. El documento se compone de tres acápites, en el primero se presenta un marco conceptual sobre género, sexo y violencia, en el segundo se hace un análisis de las diferencias entre violencia de género y violencia sexual a través de breves conceptualizaciones de ambos términos y sus tipificaciones y por último se presentan algunas conclusiones.
    Date: 2008–12–30

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