nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2008‒10‒21
sixteen papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Diferencias entre los sexos en los procedimientos judiciales: Pruebas de campo de causas de vivienda en Uruguay By Eduardo Gandelman Author-X-Name_First: Eduardo Author-X-Name_Last: Gandelman; Nestor Gandelman Author-X-Name_First: Nestor Author-X-Name_Last: Gandelman; Julie Rothschild Author-X-Name_First: Julie Author-X-Name_Last: Rothschild
  2. What Emigration Leaves Behind: The Situation of Emigrants and their Families in Ecuador By Ximena Soruco Author-X-Name_First: Ximena Author-X-Name_Last: Soruco; Giorgina Piani Author-X-Name_First: Giorgina Author-X-Name_Last: Piani; Máximo Rossi Author-X-Name_First: Máximo Author-X-Name_Last: Rossi
  3. Ethnic and Social Barriers to Cooperation: Experiments Studying the Extent and Nature of Discrimination in Urban Peru By Máximo Torero Author-X-Name_First: Máximo Author-X-Name_Last: Torero; Marco Castillo Author-X-Name_First: Marco Author-X-Name_Last: Castillo; Ragan Petrie Author-X-Name_First: Ragan Author-X-Name_Last: Petrie
  4. Discrimination in the Provision of Social Services to the Poor: A Field Experimental Study By Juan Camilo Cardenas Author-X-Name_First: Juan Camilo Author-X-Name_Last: Cardenas; Natalia Candelo Author-X-Name_First: Natalia Author-X-Name_Last: Candelo; Alejandro Gaviria Author-X-Name_First: Alejandro Author-X-Name_Last: Gaviria; Sandra Polania Author-X-Name_First: Sandra Author-X-Name_Last: Polania; Rajiv Sethi Author-X-Name_First: Rajiv Author-X-Name_Last: Sethi
  5. Estudio experimental de discriminación de mercado de trabajo: Sexo, clase social y vecindario en Chile By David Bravo Author-X-Name_First: David Author-X-Name_Last: Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza Author-X-Name_First: Claudia Author-X-Name_Last: Sanhueza; Sergio Urzua Author-X-Name_First: Sergio Author-X-Name_Last: Urzua
  6. The state of sexual and reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean: An overview By Carmen Elisa Flórez Author-X-Name_First: Carmen Elisa Author-X-Name_Last: Flórez; Victoria Eugenia Soto Author-X-Name_First: Victoria Eugenia Author-X-Name_Last: Soto
  7. Ability, Schooling Choices and Gender Labor Market Discrimination: Evidence for Chile By David Bravo Author-X-Name_First: David Author-X-Name_Last: Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza Author-X-Name_First: Claudia Author-X-Name_Last: Sanhueza; Sergio Urzua Author-X-Name_First: Sergio Author-X-Name_Last: Urzua
  8. Participación política y calidad de vida By Rebecca Weitz-Shapiro Author-X-Name_First: Rebecca Author-X-Name_Last: Weitz-Shapiro; Matthew S. Winters Author-X-Name_First: Matthew S. Author-X-Name_Last: Winters
  9. Las chicas sólo quieren divertirse? Sexualidad, embarazo y maternidad en las adolecentes de Bolivia By Mariana Alfonso Author-X-Name_First: Mariana Author-X-Name_Last: Alfonso
  10. Quality of Life in Montevideo By Giorgina Piani Author-X-Name_First: Giorgina Author-X-Name_Last: Piani; Zuleika Ferre Author-X-Name_First: Zuleika Author-X-Name_Last: Ferre; Nestor Gandelman Author-X-Name_First: Nestor Author-X-Name_Last: Gandelman
  11. Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Guatemala from a Matching Comparisons Perspective By Hugo Ñopo Author-X-Name_First: Hugo Author-X-Name_Last: Ñopo; Alberto Gonzales Author-X-Name_First: Alberto Author-X-Name_Last: Gonzales
  12. Segregación de genero en el trabajo y diferenciales de salario: Evidencia de las zonas urbanas de Mexico 1994-2004 By Sebastian Calonico Author-X-Name_First: Sebastian Author-X-Name_Last: Calonico; Hugo Ñopo Author-X-Name_First: Hugo Author-X-Name_Last: Ñopo
  13. Discriminación en el mercado laboral por habilidades, educación escolar y género en Chile By David Bravo Author-X-Name_First: David Author-X-Name_Last: Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza Author-X-Name_First: Claudia Author-X-Name_Last: Sanhueza; Sergio Urzua Author-X-Name_First: Sergio Author-X-Name_Last: Urzua
  14. Efectos económicos de la protección del empleo: Elementos de juicio a partir de datos internacionales a nivel de actividad económica By Carmen Pagés-Serra Author-X-Name_First: Carmen Author-X-Name_Last: Pagés-Serra; Alejandro Micco Author-X-Name_First: Alejandro Author-X-Name_Last: Micco
  15. Quality of Life in Buenos Aires Neighborhoods: Hedonic Price Regressions and the Life Satisfaction Approach By Guillermo Cruces Author-X-Name_First: Guillermo Author-X-Name_Last: Cruces; Andres Ham Author-X-Name_First: Andres Author-X-Name_Last: Ham; Martin Tetaz Author-X-Name_First: Martin Author-X-Name_Last: Tetaz
  16. Bonanza y crisis en América Latina: El papel de los factores externos By Alejandro Izquierdo Author-X-Name_First: Alejandro Author-X-Name_Last: Izquierdo; Randall Romero Author-X-Name_First: Randall Author-X-Name_Last: Romero; Ernesto Talvi Author-X-Name_First: Ernesto Author-X-Name_Last: Talvi

  1. By: Eduardo Gandelman Author-X-Name_First: Eduardo Author-X-Name_Last: Gandelman; Nestor Gandelman Author-X-Name_First: Nestor Author-X-Name_Last: Gandelman; Julie Rothschild Author-X-Name_First: Julie Author-X-Name_Last: Rothschild
    Abstract: Este trabajo emplea dados de nivel micro de procedimientos judiciales en Uruguay para mostrar pruebas de que las acusadas reciben un tratamiento más favorable en los tribunales que los acusados. Esto se debe a procedimientos más prolongados de remate judicial y a que hay una mayor probabilidad de que se concedan prórrogas en los procesos de desalojo a las acusadas.
    Date: 2008–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:3251&r=lam
  2. By: Ximena Soruco Author-X-Name_First: Ximena Author-X-Name_Last: Soruco; Giorgina Piani Author-X-Name_First: Giorgina Author-X-Name_Last: Piani; Máximo Rossi Author-X-Name_First: Máximo Author-X-Name_Last: Rossi
    Abstract: This study seeks to identify, measure and analyze possible discriminatory behaviors in southern Ecuador. There are three main findings. First, emigration is perceived as a social problem. Second, emigrant families are seen as economically “irrational” because they are not perceived to be investing remittances in productive and sustainable activities; emigrants are additionally portrayed as “irresponsible” because they leave their families in search of better living conditions. Third, emigrants’ children are perceived as doing worse in school than their peers and as living outside the society at large. Observed discrimination follows a cultural pattern: persons closer to the dominant culture are proportionately more to discriminate against emigrants and their families, and women show more discriminatory attitudes than men.
    Date: 2008–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:3244&r=lam
  3. By: Máximo Torero Author-X-Name_First: Máximo Author-X-Name_Last: Torero; Marco Castillo Author-X-Name_First: Marco Author-X-Name_Last: Castillo; Ragan Petrie Author-X-Name_First: Ragan Author-X-Name_Last: Petrie
    Abstract: This paper presents a series of experiments on discrimination in urban Lima, Peru. The experiments exploit degrees of information on performance as a way to assess how personal characteristics affect how people sort into groups, and the results show that behavior is not correlated with personal socio-economic and racial characteristics. However, people do use personal characteristics to sort themselves into groups. Height is a robust predictor of being desirable, as is being a woman. Looking indigenous makes one less desirable, and looking “white” increases one’s desirability. Interestingly, our experiments show that once information on performance is provided, almost all evidence of discrimination is eliminated. Although there is evidence of stereotyping or preference-based discrimination, clear information trumps discrimination.
    Date: 2008–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:3246&r=lam
  4. By: Juan Camilo Cardenas Author-X-Name_First: Juan Camilo Author-X-Name_Last: Cardenas; Natalia Candelo Author-X-Name_First: Natalia Author-X-Name_Last: Candelo; Alejandro Gaviria Author-X-Name_First: Alejandro Author-X-Name_Last: Gaviria; Sandra Polania Author-X-Name_First: Sandra Author-X-Name_Last: Polania; Rajiv Sethi Author-X-Name_First: Rajiv Author-X-Name_Last: Sethi
    Abstract: This paper uses an experimental field approach to investigate the pro-social preferences and behavior of social services providers and the behavior of potential beneficiaries in Bogota, Colombia. Field experiments were conducted using games including a newly designed Distributive Dictator Game in order to examine traits and mechanisms guiding pro-sociality. Replicating the patterns of previous studies, individuals showed a preference for fair outcomes, positive levels of trust and reciprocity, and willingness to punish unfair outcomes. The results provide evidence that the poor trigger more pro-social behavior from all citizens, including public servants, but the latter display strategic generosity. Additional observations include a bias in favor of women and households with more dependents, but discriminatory behavior against stigmatized groups.
    Date: 2008–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:3247&r=lam
  5. By: David Bravo Author-X-Name_First: David Author-X-Name_Last: Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza Author-X-Name_First: Claudia Author-X-Name_Last: Sanhueza; Sergio Urzua Author-X-Name_First: Sergio Author-X-Name_Last: Urzua
    Abstract: En este trabajo se estudia la presencia o falta de discriminación sexual. El estudio consistió en enviar currículos vitae ficticios en respuesta a solicitudes reales de personal publicadas semanalmente en el periódico El Mercurio, de Santiago. Se envió una gama de currículos estrictamente equivalentes en términos de formación profesional y experiencia laboral de los solicitantes, los cuales se diferenciaron únicamente en sexo, nombre y apellido, y lugar de domicilio. Los resultados no mostraron ninguna diferencia significativa en cuanto a los niveles de respuesta entre los diversos grupos, por contraste con lo que se descubrió en otros estudios internacionales.
    Date: 2008–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:3243&r=lam
  6. By: Carmen Elisa Flórez Author-X-Name_First: Carmen Elisa Author-X-Name_Last: Flórez; Victoria Eugenia Soto Author-X-Name_First: Victoria Eugenia Author-X-Name_Last: Soto
    Abstract: This paper reviews the state of sexual and reproductive health inseveral countries in Latin America and the Caribbean using the Demographic and Health Surveys to select countries according to their stage in the demographic transition. The results indicate advances in some areas, the most favorable being in countries with low fertility and among higher social classes. However, there are still important challenges, especially in countries whose transition has lagged. The evidence suggests that lack of information and access to reproductive services as well as social and cultural barriers, limits the exercise of a full reproductive life of women in high fertility countries and among underprivileged groups.
    Date: 2008–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:4571&r=lam
  7. By: David Bravo Author-X-Name_First: David Author-X-Name_Last: Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza Author-X-Name_First: Claudia Author-X-Name_Last: Sanhueza; Sergio Urzua Author-X-Name_First: Sergio Author-X-Name_Last: Urzua
    Abstract: This paper analyzes gender differences in the Chilean labor market, formally addressing the selection of individuals into schooling levels and its impact on gender gaps. The paper utilizes a new and rich data set containing information on labor market outcomes, schooling attainment and schooling performance, as well as variables characterizing individuals’ family background. Although the results show statistically significant gender differences in several dimensions of the Chilean labor market, these gaps depend largely on individuals’ level of schooling. Nonetheless, these findings should not be taken as decisive evidence of discrimination in the Chilean labor market, as future research based on better information might explain some of the unexplained labor market gaps.
    Date: 2008–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:3258&r=lam
  8. By: Rebecca Weitz-Shapiro Author-X-Name_First: Rebecca Author-X-Name_Last: Weitz-Shapiro; Matthew S. Winters Author-X-Name_First: Matthew S. Author-X-Name_Last: Winters
    Abstract: La obra publicada sobre la utilidad procedimental y los beneficios sicológicos derivados de la participación política, hace pensar que la gente que toma parte en actividades políticas tiende a sentirse más satisfecha con su vida, gracias a la sensación de autonomía, competencia y comunidad que produce esa participación. Datos a nivel del individuo compilados en América Latina muestran —en uno de los conjuntos de datos estudiados, mas no en otro— que existe una relación positiva y estadísticamente significativa entre el ejercicio del voto y la satisfacción con la vida. No obstante, en Costa Rica, la variación en el deseo de votar sugiere que el sentido de causalidad va de la felicidad al voto y no al contrario. Además, el uso de modelos de múltiples niveles revela una relación negativa sistemática de un país a otro entre el ejercicio obligatorio del sufragio y la felicidad, que hasta ahora no ha sido explicada teóricamente. Sólo se han hallado resultados preliminares sobre la relación entre algunas otras formas de participación política y la satisfacción con la vida.
    Date: 2008–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:4584&r=lam
  9. By: Mariana Alfonso Author-X-Name_First: Mariana Author-X-Name_Last: Alfonso
    Abstract: Este estudio busca cuantificar actividad sexual, embarazo y maternidad adolescente en Bolivia utilizando la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud más reciente. Los resultados descriptivos sugieren que la actividad sexual, el embarazo y la maternidad adolescente son más prevalentes entre aquellas jóvenes que tienen mayor probabilidad de ser vulnerables y socialmente excluidas. Además, la alta tasa de incidencia de embarazos no deseados entre adolescentes bolivianas sugiere que es necesario introducir acciones del gobierno para prevenir embarazos adolescentes. Por último, los resultados de las estimaciones indican que no sólo los factores socioeconómicos y demográficos, sino también los resultados esperados de la maternidad adolescente, los factores de fertilidad regionales, y el conocimiento sobre --y uso de--métodos de planificación familiar están significativamente relacionados a la probabilidad de embarazo/maternidad adolescente.
    Date: 2008–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:4539&r=lam
  10. By: Giorgina Piani Author-X-Name_First: Giorgina Author-X-Name_Last: Piani; Zuleika Ferre Author-X-Name_First: Zuleika Author-X-Name_Last: Ferre; Nestor Gandelman Author-X-Name_First: Nestor Author-X-Name_Last: Gandelman
    Abstract: This paper analyzes various dimensions of the quality of life in Montevideo. The paper finds that satisfaction with various public goods and services at the neighborhood level play a minor role in the overall reported well-being of individuals and in the satisfaction of life domains, such as leisure, social life, family, health, housing, neighborhood economic situation and work. This is in spite the fact that there are significant disparities in a wide range of indicators among those living in different areas of the city. The results further suggest that differences in overall happiness and in domain satisfaction are mostly due to differences in individual outcomes like education, health, labor situation and housing quality.
    Date: 2008–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:3262&r=lam
  11. By: Hugo Ñopo Author-X-Name_First: Hugo Author-X-Name_Last: Ñopo; Alberto Gonzales Author-X-Name_First: Alberto Author-X-Name_Last: Gonzales
    Abstract: This paper analyzes gender and ethnic wage gaps in Guatemala for the period 2000-2006, applying a matching comparisons technique, finding pronounced wage gaps along both gender and ethnic dimensions, the latter being greater. Wage gaps in Guatemala are partially explained by differences in human capital characteristics, especially education, between indigenous and non-indigenous and males and females, which calls for equalization of educational opportunities for the population. However, wage gaps are greater than differences in education would predict, which suggests the need for interventions: information campaigns to generate consciousness regarding the need to provide more equal opportunities in labor markets according to each individual’s productivity.
    Date: 2008–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:4587&r=lam
  12. By: Sebastian Calonico Author-X-Name_First: Sebastian Author-X-Name_Last: Calonico; Hugo Ñopo Author-X-Name_First: Hugo Author-X-Name_Last: Ñopo
    Abstract: En este documento se analiza la evolución de la discriminación sexual en el lugar de trabajo en México entre 1994 y 2004, para analizar el papel del individuo y las características de la familia en la determinación de la discriminación por motivo de sexo y las diferencias salariales. Los resultados sugieren que eliminar completamente la segregación jerárquica puede reducir las diferencias de salario observadas entre los sexos en 5 puntos porcentuales, al mismo tiempo que la eliminación de la discriminación en el trabajo puede hacer aumentar las diferencias salariales entre los sexos en seis puntos porcentuales. Además, el papel de la discriminación laboral en las diferencias salariales ha venido aumentando en magnitud durante el período, mientras que el papel de la segregación jerárquica ha venido disminuyendo.
    Date: 2008–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:4580&r=lam
  13. By: David Bravo Author-X-Name_First: David Author-X-Name_Last: Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza Author-X-Name_First: Claudia Author-X-Name_Last: Sanhueza; Sergio Urzua Author-X-Name_First: Sergio Author-X-Name_Last: Urzua
    Abstract: En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de los niveles de escolaridad sobre las brechas de sexo en el mercado laboral chileno. Se emplea un nutrido conjunto de datos sobre los resultados del mercado laboral, el logro académico y el rendimiento académico, así como las variables que caracterizan los antecedentes familiares. Aunque los resultados muestran diferencias de sexo estadísticamente significativas en varias dimensiones del mercado laboral chileno, esas brechas dependen mayormente del nivel de escolaridad de los individuos. Esos hallazgos no se deben tomar como una prueba decisiva de discriminación en el mercado laboral chileno.
    Date: 2008–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:3259&r=lam
  14. By: Carmen Pagés-Serra Author-X-Name_First: Carmen Author-X-Name_Last: Pagés-Serra; Alejandro Micco Author-X-Name_First: Alejandro Author-X-Name_Last: Micco
    Abstract: En este trabajo se analizan los efectos económicos de la legislación de protección del empleo en una muestra de países industrializados y en desarrollo. Los análisis indican que una legislación más estricta desacelera considerablemente la rotación de puestos de trabajo y que este efecto es más pronunciado en sectores que son intrínsecamente más inestables. En el trabajo también se descubre que el empleo y el valor agregado disminuyen en los sectores más afectados y que los efectos sobre el empleo y la producción son impulsados por una baja en el ingreso neto de empresas. Por contraste, el empleo promedio por planta no se ve afectado de manera considerable.
    Date: 2008–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:4497&r=lam
  15. By: Guillermo Cruces Author-X-Name_First: Guillermo Author-X-Name_Last: Cruces; Andres Ham Author-X-Name_First: Andres Author-X-Name_Last: Ham; Martin Tetaz Author-X-Name_First: Martin Author-X-Name_Last: Tetaz
    Abstract: This paper studies quality of life in urban neighborhoods in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. First, hedonic price regressions for residential prices are augmented with neighborhood characteristics, based on a real estate database with indicators on each property’s distance to public facilities and amenities, and on a smaller survey with greater detail. Second, following recent developments in the field of happiness research, the document assesses the importance of different neighborhood characteristics on quality of life by interacting objective and subjective indicators. Indices of quality of life related to local amenities are derived for the different neighborhoods for both the hedonic regression and life satisfaction approaches. The results indicate a strong but not perfect correlation between real estate prices, income levels and neighborhood characteristics, suggesting scope for welfare-improving policy interventions.
    Date: 2008–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:3260&r=lam
  16. By: Alejandro Izquierdo Author-X-Name_First: Alejandro Author-X-Name_Last: Izquierdo; Randall Romero Author-X-Name_First: Randall Author-X-Name_Last: Romero; Ernesto Talvi Author-X-Name_First: Ernesto Author-X-Name_Last: Talvi
    Abstract: Este trabajo es un análisis de la pertinencia de los factores externos en el crecimiento medio trimestral del PIB durante el período de 1990 a 2006 en los siete países latinoamericanos más grandes (LAC7). Se descubre que los factores externos son el origen de una parte significativa de la variación en el crecimiento del PIB en LAC7 y que las sacudidas externas producen respuestas considerables. Igualmente, gran parte del crecimiento reciente de LAC7 se puede justificar mediante un “viento de cola” de factores externos. Se hace hincapié en la pertinencia que pueden tener estos hallazgos para la formulación de políticas. El comportamiento del crecimiento, la fortaleza o debilidad de los indicadores macroeconómicos fundamentales y los efectos de las políticas nacionales macro y micro en el crecimiento sólo se pueden evaluar adecuadamente si se eliminan primero los efectos de los factores externos.
    Date: 2008–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:idb:wpaper:4570&r=lam

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