nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2008‒02‒09
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. La política ambiental en América Latina y el Caribe: ¿de qué depende? By Mariana Conte Grand; Vanesa D´Elia
  2. An Overview of Brazil's Balance of Payment By Rubens Penha Cysne; Paulo Gustavo Grahl
  3. Why is Corruption Less Harmful in Some Countries Than in Others? By Keith Blackburn; Gonzalo F. Forgues-Puccio
  4. Inequality in Latin America : determinants and consequences By Perry, Guillermo; Lopez , J. Humberto
  5. Terrorism and Business By Bruno S. Frey
  6. La Conquista de la Inflación: Revisión y Análisis de la Literatura Reciente. By Francisco Rosende

  1. By: Mariana Conte Grand; Vanesa D´Elia
    Abstract: Este trabajo intenta evaluar los determinantes que favorecen a que países de la región adopten políticas ambientales activas. Para eso, se toma como referencia dos indicadores de política ambiental internacional: el número de tratados internacionales ratificados referidos al medioambiente, y el cumplimiento con los programas sugeridos por la Agenda 21 para cumplimentar la meta de un desarrollo sostenible. Luego, se comparan dichos indicadores con variables que pueden explicar su performance. Éstas son principalmente de tres tipos: cuestiones socioeconómicas y de calidad de vida como el PBI o el nivel de educación, cuestiones políticas como el respeto de los derechos políticos y civiles de los ciudadanos, y, el status ambiental de los países. Los datos provienen de fuentes internacionales que hacen posible la comparación entre los países latinoamericanos. Las únicas variables que parecen ser importantes para evaluar si los países de la región van a tener políticas más activas a favor de la conservación del medio ambiente, parecen ser el grado de desarrollo humano (que mide el desarrollo en tres dimensiones: educación, esperanza de vida e ingresos) y la presión demográfica. Las libertades políticas y el status ambiental de los países no parecen determinar si éstos se inclinarán hacia políticas ambientales más activas. Los resultados son robustos a distintas especificaciones.
    Date: 2007–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cem:doctra:366&r=lam
  2. By: Rubens Penha Cysne (EPGE/FGV); Paulo Gustavo Grahl
    Date: 2008–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fgv:epgewp:667&r=lam
  3. By: Keith Blackburn; Gonzalo F. Forgues-Puccio
    Abstract: Empirical evidence shows that not all countries with high levels of corruption have su¤ered poor growth performance. Bad quality governance has clearly been much less damaging (if at all) in some economies than in others. Why this is so is a question that has largely been ignored, and the intention of this paper is to provide an answer. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model in which growth occurs endogenously through the invention of new goods based on research and development activity. For such activity to be undertaken, ?rms must acquire complementary licenses from public officials who are able to exploit their monopoly power by demanding bribes in exchange for these (otherwise free) permits. We show that the effects of corruption depend on the extent to which bureaucrats coordinate their rent-seeking behaviour. Speci?cally, our analysis predicts that countries with organised corruption networks are likely to display lower levels of bribes, higher levels of research activity and higher rates of growth than countries with disorganised corruption arrangements..
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:man:cgbcrp:88&r=lam
  4. By: Perry, Guillermo; Lopez , J. Humberto
    Abstract: Latin America is together with Sub-Saharan Africa the most unequal region of the world. This paper documents recent inequality trends in the Latin American region, going beyond traditional measures of income inequality. The paper also reviews some of the explanations that have been put forward to understand the current situation, and discusses why reducing income inequality should be an important policy priority. In particular, the authors discuss channels through which inequality can affect growth and output volatility. On the whole, the analysis suggests a two-pronged approach to reduce inequality in the region that combines policies aimed at improving the distribution of assets (especially education) with elements aimed at improving the capacity of the state to redistribute income through taxes and transfers.
    Keywords: Inequality,Rural Poverty Reduction,Economic Conditions and Volatility,Achieving Shared Growth,Poverty Impact Evaluation
    Date: 2008–02–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4504&r=lam
  5. By: Bruno S. Frey
    Abstract: Deterrence has been a crucial element in fighting terrorism, both in politics and in rational choice analyses of terrorism. However, there are two strategies that are superior to deterrence. The first one is to make terrorist attacks less devastating and less attractive to terrorists through decentralization. The second one is to raise the opportunity cost – rather than the material cost – for terrorists. These alternative strategies will effectively dissuade potential terrorists. It is here argued that they not only apply to society as a whole but can also usefully be applied by business enterprises.
    Keywords: Terrorism, Deterrence, Decentralization, Opportunity Cost, Business, Enterprises
    JEL: D74 H56 K42
    Date: 2007–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zur:iewwpx:329&r=lam
  6. By: Francisco Rosende (Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.)
    Abstract: A partir de mediados de los 80 se aprecia una caída importante en la inflación en las economías industrializadas, proceso que más tarde se extiende a numerosos países en desarrollo. Este proceso se produce en un contexto intelectual donde se aprecia la influencia de ideas como “la hipótesis de la tasa natural”, la importancia de las “expectativas racionales” y la “neutralidad de largo plazo” de la política monetaria. En esta perspectiva, resulta tentador suponer que la caída experimentada por la inflación en el mundo ha sido el resultado de un genuino progreso en el conocimiento adquirido por la Ciencia Económica. A partir de una revisión de la literatura reciente sobre las causas del aumento y posterior caída de la inflación en los Estados Unidos, se examina la validez y alcance de la visión optimista antes mencionada. En la segunda parte del trabajo, se revisan las causas de la caída que ésta ha experimentado la inflación en Chile en los últimos treinta años, a la luz de una identificación de las restricciones y objetivos de la política monetaria en dicho período.
    Keywords: Inflación, Política Monetaria, Expectativas
    JEL: E31 E32 E52
    Date: 2008
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ioe:doctra:330&r=lam

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