New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2007‒10‒20
seven papers chosen by

  1. Conflictos de tierras, derechos de propiedad y el surgimiento de la economía exportadora en el siglo XIX en Colombia By Fabio Sánchez Torres; Antonella Fazio Vargas; María del Pilar López Uribe
  2. The determinants of rising informality in Brazil : Evidence from gross worker flows By Maloney, William; Goni, Edwin; Bosch, Mariano
  3. Early identification of at-risk youth in Latin America : an applic ation of cluster analysis By Cunningham, Wendy; Bagby, Emilie
  4. Transferencias intergeneracionales en Uruguay By Marisa Bucheli; Rodrigo Ceni; Cecilia González
  5. Tariff revenue sharing rules in a customs union: a new methodology applied to the MERCOSUR case By Marcel Vaillant; Alvaro Lalanne
  6. Efectos de Derrames de Comercio de las Empresas Transnacionales en la Industria Manufacturera Uruguaya (1990-2000) By Rosario Domingo; Nicolás Reig Lorenzi
  7. Inequidades socioeconómicas en el uso de servicios sanitarios del adulto mayor montevideano By Ana Inés Balsa; Daniel Ferrés; Máximo Rossi; Patricia Triunfo

  1. By: Fabio Sánchez Torres; Antonella Fazio Vargas; María del Pilar López Uribe
    Abstract: Este estudio desarrolla la relación entre la expansión de la oferta de tierras y el desarrollo exportador a finales del siglo XIX e intenta explicar la lánguida inserción de la economía colombiana a la economía mundial durante la ola de globalización que se inició a mediados del siglo XIX. Con base en la información sobre producción de cultivos exportables a nivel municipal de 1892, adjudicación de baldíos y conflictos de tierra durante el siglo XIX se encuentra que el mayor obstáculo que enfrentó el desarrollo exportador fue la debilidad de los derechos de propiedad de los colonos en las tierras de frontera, resultante del riesgo de expropiación o usurpación por parte de terratenientes locales. A partir de los resultados cuantitativos se calcula que en ausencia de conflicto de tierras la probabilidad de que un municipio hubiese tenido producción de productos exportables habría sido 50% más alta mientras la producción de productos exportables habría sido por lo menos el doble de la observada. Para corregir por la posible endogeneidad entre el desarrollo exportador local (municipal) y los conflictos de tierra locales se utiliza como instrumento de estos últimos la cercanía geográfica a la presencia de instituciones coloniales (Encomienda en 1560 y Esclavitud –poblaciones con más de 20 esclavos en 1800).
    Date: 2007–09–13
  2. By: Maloney, William; Goni, Edwin; Bosch, Mariano
    Abstract: This paper studies gross worker flows to explain the rising informality in Brazilian metropolitan labor markets from 1983 to 2002. This period covers two economic cycles, several stabilization plans, a far-reaching trade liberalization, and changes in labor legislation through the Constitutional reform of 1988. First, focusing on cyclical patterns, the authors confirm that for Brazil, the patterns of worker transitions between formality and informality correspond primarily to the job-to-job dynamics observed in the United States, and not to the traditional idea of the informal queuing for jobs in a segmented market. H owever, the analysis also confirms distinct cyclical patterns of job finding and separation rates that lead to the informal sector absorbing more labor during downturns. Second, focusing on secular movements in gross flows and the volatility of flows, the paper finds the rise in informality to be driven primarily by a reduction in job finding rates in the formal sector. A small fraction of this is driven by trade liberalization, and the remainder seems driven by rising labor costs and reduced flexibility arising from Constitutional reform.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Labor Policies,Population Policies,,Health Monitoring & Evaluation
    Date: 2007–10–01
  3. By: Cunningham, Wendy; Bagby, Emilie
    Abstract: A new literature on the nature of and policies for youth in Latin America is emerging, but there is still very little known about who are the most vulnerable young people. This paper aims to characterize the heterogeneity in the youth population and identify ex ante the youth that are at-risk and should be targeted with prevention programs. Using non-parametric methodologies and specialized youth surveys from Mexico and Chile, the authors quantify and characterize the different sub-groups of youth, according to the amount of risk in their lives, and find that approximately 20 percent of 18 to 24 year old Chileans and 40 percent of the same age cohort in Mexico are suffering the consequences of a range of negative behaviors. Another 8 to 20 percent demonstrate factors in their lives that pre-dispose them to becoming at-risk youth - they are the candidates for prevention programs. The analysis finds two observable variables that can be used to identify which children have a higher probability of becoming troubled youth: poverty and residing in rural areas. The analysis also finds that risky behaviors increase with age and differ by gender, thereby highlighting the need for program and policy differentiation along these two demographic dimensions.
    Keywords: Adolescent Health,Youth and Governance,Health Monitoring & Evaluation,Population Policies,Gender and Health
    Date: 2007–10–01
  4. By: Marisa Bucheli (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Rodrigo Ceni (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Cecilia González (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present an overall picture of the 1994 estimations of the economic flows per capita by age profile in Uruguay, focusing on the transfers between ages. People consume during the whole of their lives, but labor income is concentrated in the prime ages. In fact, in childhood and for the elderly, consumption is below labor income. These age groups have a life cycle deficit, which is supported by public and private transfers and asset-based reallocations from middle-aged people. The different account profiles (public and private consumption, labor income, public and private transfers, asset-based reallocation) are estimated using micro-data from the Household Survey. The totals of these accounts are consistent with the NIPA.
    Keywords: intergenerational transfers, generational accounts
    JEL: J10
    Date: 2007–07
  5. By: Marcel Vaillant (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Alvaro Lalanne
    Abstract: Mechanisms for sharing the common tariff revenue in a customs union have received little attention in the literature (Syropoulus, 2003). Comparative analyses show that in past and current customs unions two main mechanisms are been used: generals rules and common funds. In this paper, a new mechanism which is fiscally neutral is developed, based on the final consumption criterion. The new methodology computes the extrazone imports and the common tariff revenue incorporated in intrazone trade both directly and indirectly. It extends the methodology of Lumega-Neso, Olarreaga and Schiff (2005) which was developed in a different context (measuring the effects of trade opening on technical progress). The technique developed here employs input-output tables together with observed trade flows, and is applied in the case of MERCOSUR. This methodology is useful not only because it offers a new option to policymakers but also because it leads to a new characterization of interregional trade flows. The paper derives interesting results in this respect. Intraregional trade in MERCOSUR comprises mainly locally produced goods with little extrazone import content, though there are important differences among MERCOSUR members. Brazil’s intrazone exports incorporate the most extrazone imports and hence should be the main net contributor to the compensation fund created by the proposed mechanism.
    Keywords: common tariff revenue; sharing rules; Customs Union
    JEL: F15 F13
    Date: 2007–08
  6. By: Rosario Domingo (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Nicolás Reig Lorenzi (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to measure, through econometric techniques, the existence of trade spillovers from Transnational Corporations present in Uruguayan’s manufacturing sector in 1990-2000. The principal conclusions are that the export behavior of TNC affiliates is more significant than that of local firms, but this does not mean that there are important trade spillovers. The presence of TNC affiliates does not imply a greater export propensity. Between 1997 and 2000 the TNC affiliates presented a higher import propensity than local firms and there are not evidences of spillovers. In the 1990-96 period this relationship would be different, and a greater presence of TNC seems to impact positively on the import propensity of both national firms and TNC’s affiliates.
    Keywords: Multinational Enterprises, Foreign Direct Investment, trade spillovers
    JEL: F21 F23
    Date: 2007–02
  7. By: Ana Inés Balsa (Departamento de Economía, Universidad de Montevideo; Health Economics Research Group, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA); Daniel Ferrés (Departamento de Economía, Universidad de Montevideo); Máximo Rossi (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Patricia Triunfo (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: The aim of this work is to analyse the socio-economic associated inequity in the use of health care services among older adults in Montevideo, capital city of Uruguay, based on data from the SABE survey in the years 1999-2000. We impute the equivalent household income through the use of the ECH (Household Continuous Survey) of the Statistics National Institute (INE). Considering a wide range of access, quality, and use of health care services indicators, we attempt to reduce the probable biases that arise from the fact that morbidity and use of health care services variables are measured contemporaneously. Also, we correct for the potential endogeneity of income and health by the use of Instrumental Variables. After the standardization of the use of services by necessity, we find horizontal inequity favouring the older adults with a higher socio-economic level, in the quality of access to the medical consultation (time to arrival and time to being attended), in the probability of having had a consultation in the last four and twelve months, and in the use of preventive services (mammography, Papanicolau, and prostate examination). The latter, show the higher levels of inequity. Through the Instrumental Variable analysis we deduce that inequity would be underestimated if endogeneity is not corrected for.
    Keywords: health inequity, concentration indexes, older adults
    JEL: I10 I18 I19
    Date: 2007–10

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