nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2007‒03‒10
seven papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
University of the Republic

  1. Inflation and Finance: Evidence from Brazil By Manoel F. Bittencourt
  2. The Argentine Competition Law and its Enforcement By Germán coloma
  3. DECENTRALIZATION’S EFFECTS ON EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES IN BOLIVIA AND COLOMBIA By Jean-Paul Faguet; Fabio Sánchez
  4. LOGRO ACADÉMICO, ASISTENCIA ESCOLAR Y RIESGO DE TRABAJO INFANTIL Y JUVENIL EN LA SÁBANA DE BOGOTÁ By Fabio Sánchez; Camila Fernández; Laura Cuesta; Victoria Soto
  5. DEMOGRAFÍA Y POBREZA EN COLOMBIA By Jairo Núñez; Laura Cuesta
  6. The impact of trade with China and India on Argentina ' s manufacturing employment By Castro, Lucio; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Saslavsky, Daniel
  7. Real exchange rates, dollarization and industrial employment in Latin America By Arturo Galindo; Alejandro Izquierdo; José M. Montero

  1. By: Manoel F. Bittencourt
    Abstract: In this paper we examine the impact of inflation on financial development in Brazil. The data available permit us to cover the eventful period between 1985 and 2002 and the results-based initially on time series and then on panel time series data and analysis, and robust for different estimators, specifications and financial development measures-suggest that high and erratic rates of inflation presented deleterious effects on finance at the time. The main policy implication arising from the results is that poor macroeconomic performance, exemplified by high rates of inflation, can only have detrimental effects on finance, a variable that is important for directly affecting, e.g., economic growth and development, and income inequality. Therefore, low and stable inflation is a necessary first step to achieve a more inclusive and active financial sector with all its attached benefits.
    Keywords: Financial development, inflation, growth, inequality, Brazil.
    JEL: E31 E44 O11 O54
    Date: 2007–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bri:cmpowp:07/163&r=lam
  2. By: Germán coloma
    Abstract: This article analyzes the basic characteristics of the Argentine competition law and the way in which it has been enforced in several important antitrust cases. We begin with a section that introduces the evolution of the law, followed by another section about the basic economic and legal principles underlying that law. The rest of the article describes the enforcement of the law, in a number of cases that involve collusive practices, exclusionary practices, vertical restraints, abuses of dominant position, and mergers.
    Keywords: Competition law, antitrust, Argentina
    JEL: K21 L40
    Date: 2007–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cem:doctra:342&r=lam
  3. By: Jean-Paul Faguet; Fabio Sánchez
    Abstract: The effects of decentralization on public sector outputs is much debated but little agreed upon. This paper compares the remarkable case of Bolivia with the more complex case of Colombia to explore decentralization’s effects on public education outcomes. In Colombia, decentralization of education finance improved enrollment rates in public schools. In Bolivia, decentralization made government more responsive by re-directing public investment to areas of greatest need. In both countries, investment shifted from infrastructure to primary social services. In both, it was the behavior of smaller, poorer, more rural municipalities that drove these changes.
    Date: 2006–03–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:001049:002817&r=lam
  4. By: Fabio Sánchez; Camila Fernández; Laura Cuesta; Victoria Soto
    Abstract: Este trabajo analiza los determinantes de la relación entre asistencia escolar y trabajo infantil y juvenil, en los municipios de Funza y Madrid (Colombia). Se busca responder a las preguntas: ¿Existe algún vínculo entre la decisión de no asistir y la participación de niños y jóvenes en el mercado laboral? y ¿Cuál es el efecto del logro académico en las decisiones de trabajo y asistencia escolar? La muestra para el estudio proviene de una encuesta realizada a más de 1700 niños y jóvenes entre los 10 y 17 años y a sus padres. La información de logro se obtuvo de los resultados de una prueba de lenguaje y matemáticas aplicadas a los estudiantes de quinto grado, en las escuelas de Funza y Madrid. Con la información obtenida se estima un modelo probit bivariado para determinar que variables están asociadas con la decisión conjunta de asistir a la escuela y no trabajar. Los resultados más importantes indican que la pobreza estructural de los hogares, y los cuidados y creencias de los padres, están asociados con el riesgo de trabajo infantil y juvenil. Así mismo, se encuentra evidencia de que el logro educativo y el clima escolar inciden positivamente en la decisión de asistencia escolar.
    Date: 2006–04–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:001049:002819&r=lam
  5. By: Jairo Núñez; Laura Cuesta
    Abstract: Este trabajo analiza el vínculo entre los resultados demográficos y la pobreza en Colombia. Se busca responder a las preguntas: ¿Cuál es el efecto de la fecundidad adolescente en la educación, la participación laboral, y la estructura y tamaño del hogar de las madres adolescentes?, ¿Cuál es el efecto de la maternidad temprana y el tamaño del hogar en la salud, la educación y el riesgo de trabajo infantil de los niños? y ¿Cuáles son las intervenciones en salud sexual y reproductiva que se deben implementar para contrarrestar la pobreza? Los efectos sobre las madres adolescentes se estiman a través de los métodos variables instrumentales y ecuaciones simultáneas. Los efectos sobre la calidad de vida de los niños se derivan de las estimaciones por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, probit, y propensity score matching. Finalmente, las intervenciones en salud sexual y reproductiva que se sugieren para contrarrestar la pobreza se basan en las estimaciones de un modelo multinivel. Los resultados indican que la fecundidad adolescente tiene efectos negativos y estadísticamente significativos sobre la educación, la participación laboral y la estructura y el tamaño del hogar de las madres adolescentes. Así mismo, la edad al primer nacimiento y el número de hijos reducen los años de educación y aumentan el riesgo de enfermedad de los niños. Los datos provienen de la Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud de 2005
    Date: 2006–08–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:001049:002830&r=lam
  6. By: Castro, Lucio; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Saslavsky, Daniel
    Abstract: For many in Latin America, the increasing participation of China and India in international markets is seen as a looming shadow of two " mighty giants " on the region ' s manufacturing sector. Are they really mighty giants when it comes to their impact on manufacturing employment? The authors attempt to answer this question by estimating the effects of trade with China and India on Argentina ' s industrial employment. They use a dynamic econometric model and industry level data to estimate the effects of trade with China and India on the level of employment in Argentina ' s manufacturing sector. Results suggest that trade with China and India only had a small negative effect on industrial employment, even during the swift trade liberalization of the 1990s.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Free Trade,Economic Theory & Research,Water and Industry,Trade Policy
    Date: 2007–03–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4153&r=lam
  7. By: Arturo Galindo (Universidad de los Andes); Alejandro Izquierdo (Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)); José M. Montero (Banco de España)
    Abstract: We use a panel dataset on industrial employment and trade for 9 Latin American countries for which liability dollarization data at the industrial level is available. We test whether real exchange rate fluctuations have a significant impact on employment, and analyze whether the impact varies with the degree of trade openness and liability dollarization. Econometric evidence supports the view that real exchange rate depreciations can impact employment growth positively, but this effect is reversed as liability dollarization increases. In industries with high liability dollarization, the overall impact of a real exchange rate depreciation can be negative.
    Keywords: manufacturing employment, real exchange rates, debt composition, balance sheet effects
    JEL: E24 F31 F34 G32
    Date: 2006–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bde:wpaper:0601&r=lam

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