nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2006‒11‒18
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. La metodología de la Encuesta Continua de Hogares y el empalme de las series del mercado laboral urbano de Colombia By Luis Eduardo Arango; Andrés Felipe García; Carlos Esteban Posada
  2. Las fuentes del desempleo en Colombia: un examen a partir de un modelo SVEC By Enrique López Enciso; Martha Misas Arango
  3. Migration as a Safety Net and Effects of Remittances on Household Consumption: The Case of Colombia By Lina cardona Sosa; Carlos Medina
  4. As cidades e a classe criativa no Brasil: diferenças espaciais na distribuição de indivíduos qualificados By André Braz Golgher
  5. The Political Economy of Monetary Institutions in Brazil: The Limits of the Inflation Targeting Strategy, 1999-2005 By Matias Vernengo

  1. By: Luis Eduardo Arango; Andrés Felipe García; Carlos Esteban Posada
    Abstract: La encuesta de hogares tuvo cambios importantes en el año 2000. Ello implicó modificaciones en los conceptos, preguntas, periodicidad de recolección y cobertura que han dificultado la realización de estudios sobre el mercado laboral que requieran series completas desde 1984 hasta hoy. Efectos del cambio son menores registros en las tasas de desempleo y participación y uno mayor en la tasa de ocupación. Este artículo expone dos métodos de empalme de las series: uno apoyado en datos micro y otro en agregados del mercado laboral. Con base en los resultados de ambos métodos proponemos series de tasas de ocupación, participación y desempleo para empalmar con las series recientes del DANE generadas a partir de la Encuesta Continua de Hogares.
    Keywords: Fuerza laboral, encuesta de hogares, desocupados, trabajadores familiares sin remuneración, modelos logit, modelos panel. Classification JEL: J21; J22; J82; C21; C22; C23.
  2. By: Enrique López Enciso; Martha Misas Arango
    Abstract: En este artículo se analizan las fuentes del desempleo en Colombia en el marco de un modelo estructural de corrección de errores (SVEC). Con este propósito se estima un modelo de corrección de errores. El análisis de cointegración muestra la existencia de una relación de largo plazo entre la productividad, el empleo, el desempleo, la tasa real de cambio y el salario real. Con base en la forma reducida del modelo de corrección de errores se identifican los shocks estructurales y se determina su importancia para el desempleo a partir del análisis de impulso respuesta y la descomposición de la varianza del error de pronóstico.
    Keywords: Desempleo, Cointegración, VEC estructural Classification JEL: C32; E24.
  3. By: Lina cardona Sosa; Carlos Medina
    Abstract: We assess whether international remittances affect Colombian household’s expenditure composition and demand of education. We exploit the migratory wave that took place on late 90s due to one of the deepest crises in Colombian history, along with institutional barriers to migration, to identify the effect of remittances on expenditure composition. The empirical exercises find a positive effect over education, beneficiary households expending about 10% of total expenditure more in education than non beneficiaries. In addition although no effect was found on enrollment rates, we found an important effect on the probability of attending a private, rather that a public, educational institution. Such effect is on average 24% for individuals 5-30 years old, 50% for those attending secondary education, and 40% for those attending higher education. On the other hand, effects over consumption, investment and health expenditure, are nil. Finally, we find important effects of remittances on living standards of beneficiary households.
    Keywords: International Remittances, International Migration, Safety Net, Consumption Composition Classification JEL: F22; I31; P36.
  4. By: André Braz Golgher (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: The theoretical foundation for this text is the one presented by Florida (2002a, 2002b, 2005). He discusses the importance of a vibrant society and also of a highly diversified population for the attraction of talented and creative people. This attraction would promote a concentration of this type of person in some specific localities and this would be decisive for the development of cities and regions. Based on this discussion, an empirical analysis about the distribution of qualified population and some aspects that influence this distribution was done for Brazil. In order to do so, some indicators were built for different geographical areas and periods. Firstly, the text discusses the temporal tendencies for states in Brazil in the period between 1986 and 2004. A positive evolution was verified for all the qualification index, and a tendency of homogenization was observed. Then, municipal data for the year of 2000 was presented. Some municipalities had the highest values for most of the indicators, such as: São Caetano do Sul (SP), Niterói (RJ) and Florianópolis (SC). After this, given the importance of intraurban interchanges in Brazilian metropolitan regions, it was presented a study emphasizing these areas. Two metropolitan regions had the best indicators and were classified as in areas: Florianópolis (SC) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ). In the last part of the text, the intraurban heterogeneity of the three more populous metropolitan regions in Brazil, RMSP, RMRJ and RMBH, was studied and a high degree of urban polarization was verified.
    Keywords: Human capital; internal migration; regional development; Brazil
    JEL: J24 O15 R10
    Date: 2006–10
  5. By: Matias Vernengo
    Abstract: The paper provides a critical analysis of the literature on monetary policy institutions. It presents a critique of the dominant notion of central bank independence, based on the literature on time-inconsistency of monetary policy. An alternative view that emphasizes the role of distributive conflict in establishing monetary policy regimes is developed and used to analyze the Brazilian inflation targeting regime implemented in 1999. The analysis suggests that financial or rentier’s interests benefit from the current monetary regime, while manufacturing and worker’s interests bear the costs.
    Keywords: Inflation Targeting, Central Bank Behavior, Distributive Conflict
    JEL: E52 E58 F59
    Date: 2006–05

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