nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2006‒10‒21
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. On the determinants of mortality reductions in the developing world By Rodrigo Reis Soares
  2. Child Labour in the Latin America and Carribean Region: a Gender Based Analisys By L.Guarcello; B.Henschel; S.Lyon; F.Rosati; C. Valdivia
  3. Globalization and Wage Inequality in South and East Asia, and Latin America: A Gender Approach By Enriqueta Camps; Maria Camou; Silvana Maubrigades; Natalia Mora-Sitja
  4. Conscription and Crime By Galiani, Sebastian; Rossi, Martin; Schargrodsky, Ernesto
  5. Crime and violence in development : a literature review of Latin America and the Caribbean By Heinemann, Alessandra; Verner, Dorte

  1. By: Rodrigo Reis Soares (Department of Economics PUC-Rio)
    Abstract: This paper presents and critically discusses a vast array of evidence on the determinants of mortality reductions in developing countries. We argue that increases in life expectancy between 1960 and 2000 were largely independent from improvements in income and nutrition. We then characterize the age and cause of death profile of changes in mortality and ask what can be learned about the determinants of these changes from the international evidence and from country-specific studies. Public health infrastructure, immunization, targeted programs, and the spread of less palpable forms of knowledge all seem to have been important factors. Much of the recent debate has revolved around antagonistic approaches, which are not supported by the evidence discussed here. Finally, the paper suggests that the evolution of health inequality across and within countries is intrinsically related to the process of diffusion of new technologies and to the nature of these new technologies (public or private).
    Date: 2006–10
  2. By: L.Guarcello; B.Henschel; S.Lyon; F.Rosati; C. Valdivia
    Abstract: The study examines the child labour phenomenon in the Latin America and Caribbean region from a gender perspective. It represents part of a broader effort to improve understanding of how child labour differs by sex, and to ensure that policies relating to child labour adequately reflect these differences. Using information from SIMPOC and LSMS survey datasets from 12 LAC countries, the study looks at differences by sex in key dimensions of the child labour phenomenom - its extent, nature, and effect on health and education outcomes. It addresses what type of activity is more common among girls, and extent to which girls' work experience differs from that of boys. The study also analyses how gender stereotypes and cultural norms affect household decisions concerning children's time use, and the implications this has for policy. The study encompasses not only girls and boys at work in economy activity, but also those performing household chores in their own homes. The latter group of children, dominated by girls, is frequently overlooked in child labour statistics and in analyses of child labour . The study also looks at girls and boys performing "double duty" and reportedly inactive children.
    Date: 2006–04
  3. By: Enriqueta Camps; Maria Camou; Silvana Maubrigades; Natalia Mora-Sitja
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse the reasons behind the evolution of the gender gap and wage inequality in South and East Asian and Latin American countries. Health human capital improvements, the exposure to free market openness and equal treatment enforcement laws seem to be the main exogenous variables affecting women’s economic condition. During the second globalization era (in the years 1975-2000) different combinations of these variables in South East Asian and Latin American countries have had as a result the diminution of the gender gap. The main exception to this rule according to our data is China where economic reforms have been simultaneous to the increase of gender differences and inequality between men and women. This result has further normative consequences for the measure of economic inequality. The improvement of women’s condition has as a result the diminution of the dispersion of wages. Therefore in most of the countries analysed the consequence of the diminution of the gender gapduring the second global era is the decrease of wage inequality both measured with Gini and Theil indexes.
    Keywords: Wage inequality, gender gap, market openness, human capital
    JEL: J22 J13 J16
    Date: 2006–07
  4. By: Galiani, Sebastian; Rossi, Martin; Schargrodsky, Ernesto
    Abstract: The initiation in criminal activities is, typically, a young phenomenon. The study of the determinants of entry into criminal activities should pay attention to major events affecting youth. In many countries, one of these important events is mandatory participation in military service. The objective of this study is to estimate the causal relationship between mandatory participation in military service and crime. The authors exploit the random assignment through a draft lottery of young men to conscription in Argentina to identify this causal effect. Their results suggest that participation in military service increased the likelihood of developing a criminal record in adulthood (in particular, for property and weapon-related crimes).
    Keywords: Peace & Peacekeeping,Children and Youth,Political Systems and Analysis,Politics and Government,Crime and Society
    Date: 2006–10–01
  5. By: Heinemann, Alessandra; Verner, Dorte
    Abstract: The authors review the recent literature on crime and violence in Latin America and the Caribbean and present a broad overview of the main ideas and empirical findings. They provide estimates of the magnitude of the problem, trends, and the manifestations of crime and violence in Latin America. They also discuss the ways in which violence affects development, the root causes of violence, and the empirical evidence on the determinants of crime. The authors conclude by stressing that preventive measures and innovative social policies are efficient and underutilized strategies to address the problem and call for both more research and operational experimentation.
    Keywords: Health Monitoring & Evaluation,Adolescent Health,Youth and Governance,Children and Youth,Social Cohesion
    Date: 2006–10–01

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