nep-lam New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2006‒08‒19
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. IDENTIFYING FISCAL POLICY SHOCKS IN CHILE AND COLOMBIA By Jorge E. Restrepo; Hernán Rincón
  2. EL PROTECCIONISMO NO ARANCELARIO Y LA COYUNTURA ECONÓMICA: EL CASO COLOMBIANO RECIENTE (1990-2005) By Edgar Trujillo C.; Carlos Esteban Posada
  3. Entrepreneurship in Brazil, China, and Russia By Simeon Djankov; Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Ekaterina Zhuravskaya
  4. Desigualdad y Pobreza entre las Regiones Argentinas: Un Análisis de Microdescomposiciones By Héctor Zacaria; Juan Ignacio Zoloa
  5. Equity in Latin America Since the 1990s By Pedro Sáinz

  1. By: Jorge E. Restrepo; Hernán Rincón
    Abstract: Structural VAR and Structural VEC models were estimated for Chile and Colombia, aiming at identifying fiscal policy shocks in both countries between 1990 and 2005. The impulse responses obtained allow the calculation of a pesofor- peso ($/$) effect on output of a shock to public spending and to the government's net tax revenues, providing a good notion of the incidence of fiscal policy shocks in both countries. When public finances are under control, as they are in Chile, fiscal policy seems to be more effective than when they lack stability and credibility, as seems to be the case of Colombia since the mid nineties.
    Keywords: Identification, Fiscal Policy, SVAR, SVEC
    JEL: E62 E63 C32 C51 C52 C53
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bdr:borrec:397&r=lam
  2. By: Edgar Trujillo C.; Carlos Esteban Posada
    Abstract: Los economistas han identificado el desarrollo de un nuevo tipo de proteccionismo comercial basado en el uso de barreras no arancelarias a las importaciones. La razón de este nuevo proteccionismo es la extensión adquirida por los acuerdos de libre comercio. Este documento revisa la experiencia colombiana (1990- 2005) relativa a este nuevo proteccionismo, específicamente las solicitudes y aplicaciones de mecanismos de carácter transitorio, a saber, medidas anti-dumping y salvaguardias. De los resultados del ejercicio econométrico puede deducirse que: a) las medidas proteccionistas no arancelarias de carácter transitorio, y sus solicitudes, dependen de dos factores: el grado de penetración de las importaciones y la tasa de crecimiento del PIB real, y b) las medidas anti-dumping hacen parte del nuevo proteccionismo, también en Colombia, a pesar de su origen j urídico y de su propósito formal.
    Keywords: proteccionismo, anti-dumping, salvaguardias, importaciones.
    JEL: F13 F14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bdr:borrec:399&r=lam
  3. By: Simeon Djankov (the World Bank); Yingyi Qian (UC Berkeley and NBER); Gerard Roland (UC Berkeley and CEPR); Ekaterina Zhuravskaya (New Economic School/CEFIR and CEPR)
    Abstract: We study the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur in Russia, China, and Brazil, using unique survey data at the individual level. We find that entrepreneurs have many common characteristics relative to non-entrepreneurs in all three countries. They are more likely to have entrepreneurs among their relatives and friends, place a higher value on work, are happier and perceive themselves as more successful. There are also a few important differences. Russian and Chinese entrepreneurs are more mobile geographically and across jobs. In Brazil, on the contrary, entrepreneurs are less mobile across jobs and industries. Brazil entrepreneurs have higher trust than non-entrepreneurs, while in Russia and China this is not the case. Finally, we confirm that perceptions of institutional environment are an important determinant of individual decisions to expand business.
    Date: 2006–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cfr:cefirw:w0066&r=lam
  4. By: Héctor Zacaria (Universidad Nacional de La Plata); Juan Ignacio Zoloa (Universidad Nacional de La Plata)
    Abstract: Las regiones argentinas presentan diferencias en su estructura poblacional y también en la forma en que retribuyen a los distintos factores. Este trabajo estudia cómo esas diferencias afectan la distribución del ingreso y la pobreza, aplicando técnicas de microdescomposición. La utilización de dichas técnicas permite cuantificar la contribución de cada uno de los determinantes de los ingresos, a tales diferencias. Los resultados de este trabajo sugieren una fuerte heterogeneidad entre las regiones, encontrándose las causas de las diferentes tasas de pobreza y desigualdad, principalmente en los retornos a la educación, la brecha salarial entre hombres y mujeres y a los distintos niveles de empleo.
    Keywords: Distribución, pobreza, descomposiciones, educación, ingresos, desempleo, Argentina.
    JEL: C14 C15 C24 D31 I21 I32 J23 J31
    Date: 2006–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dls:wpaper:0039&r=lam
  5. By: Pedro Sáinz
    Abstract: This paper deals with the social welfare consequences of the stagnation of Latin American growth per capita during the far-reaching economic and social changes that took place during the period 1980-2003. This period of transformation saw large-scale foreign actors gradually increase their economic and political power in Latin America, with negative consequences for domestic economies, especially in terms of increasing income inequality and rising poverty. The only major tendency mitigating these adverse trends was an increase in public expenditure in the social sector during the 1990s, which offset, but did not eliminate, the increased inequality associated with the economic transformation.
    Keywords: Latin America, economic change, poverty, income distribution, social policy, health,education
    JEL: O11 O17 O40 O54 I28 I32
    Date: 2006–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:une:wpaper:22&r=lam

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