New Economics Papers
on Central and South America
Issue of 2006‒08‒12
three papers chosen by

  1. A 50 años de la Curva de Kuznets: Crecimiento Económico y Distribución del Ingreso en Uruguay y otros Países de Nuevo Asentamiento desde 1870 By Luis Bertola
  2. Structural Weakness in Nicaragua : Hindrances to Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction By Ruth Rios-Morales
  3. Electricity Reform in Chile Lessons for Developing Countries By Michael Pollitt

  1. By: Luis Bertola
    Abstract: Este trabajo aborda las tendencias de la distribución del ingreso en Uruguay desde aproximadamente 1870, recurriendo a diferentes fuentes: los movimientos de los precios relativos entre 1870 y 2000 (rentas/salarios, alquileres/salarios, términos de intercambio), estimaciones del ingreso personal de los principales sectores de actividad económica (1908-1966) y las más recientes estimaciones en base al ingreso de los hogares de los años ’60. Los resultados se discuten en diálogo con la curva de Kuznets buscando ampliar la perspectiva mediante comparaciones con países de nuevo asentamiento: Argentina, Australia y Nueva Zelanda. Se encuentra un patrón común a estos países: creciente desigualdad durante la primera globalización, una tendencia igualitaria desde los ‘20 y profundizada durante la ISI, y una nueva tendencia a la desigualdad en la segunda globalización. En Uruguay no aparecen correlaciones estables entre crecimiento y equidad, ni en el largo plazo, ni en las fases de los movimientos cíclicos tipo Kuznets.
    Date: 2005–05
  2. By: Ruth Rios-Morales
    Abstract: Despite generous debt reduction under the HIPC initiative, Nicaragua is not growing at the rate required to alleviate poverty. This paper outlines Nicaragua’s vulnerability to external changes and its inability to compete in the global market. Nicaragua suffers from severe structural problems; it has a very poorly diversified industrial structure, and its trading performance is correspondingly weak, relying on basic agricultural exports that have suffered stagnant or declining prices on international markets. Nicaragua is a clear example of an HIPC country that has achieved the criteria to enter into the HIPC initiative but is struggling to maintain sustainable economic development while trying to achieve poverty reduction.
    Date: 2006–08–02
  3. By: Michael Pollitt
    Abstract: Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces the history of the Chilean reform, which began in 1982, and assesses its progress and its lessons. We conclude that the reform has been very successful. We suggest lessons for the generation, transmission and distribution sectors, as well as the economic regulation of electricity and the general institutional environment favourable to reform. We note that while the initial market structure and regulatory arrangements did give rise to certain problems, the overall experience argues strongly for the private ownership and operation of the electricity industry.
    Date: 2004–09

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