nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2022‒10‒17
seven papers chosen by
Laura Nicola-Gavrila
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Characterising science-industry patent collaborations: knowledge base, impact and economic value By Ugo RIZZO; Valerio STERZI
  2. The emergence of a Global Innovation System: an inter-temporal analysis through a network of networks By Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Jorge Nogueira de Paiva Britto; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  3. Spatial externalities, R&D spillovers, and endogenous technological change By Spyridon Tsangaris; Anastasios Xepapadeas; Athanasios Yannacopoulos
  4. Skills for Smart Specialization: Relatedness, Complexity and Evaluation of Priorities By Duygu Buyukyazici; ; ;
  5. Does Host Country Intellectual Property Protection Matter for Technology-Intensive Import Flows? By Ridwan Ah Sheikh; Sunil Kanwar
  6. Nature-inspired innovation policy: biomimicry as a pathway to leverage biodiversity for economic development By Lebdioui, Amir
  7. Fostering the Diffusion of General Purpose Technologies: Evidence from the Licensing of the Transistor Patents By Nagler, Markus; Schnitzer, Monika; Watzinger, Martin

  1. By: Ugo RIZZO; Valerio STERZI
    Abstract: In this article, we analyse the characteristics of science-industry patents with respect to non-collaborative industry patents and industry-industry collaborative patents. This analysis covers patents filed in the years 1978-2015 (and granted up to 2020) at the European Patent Office (EPO) in four large European countries (Germany, France, Italy and the UK) and in the US. We consider three dimensions to assess the characteristics of patents: the knowledge base, the technological impact, and the economic value. Science-industry collaborative patents are averagely more sophisticated and similar or higher impact than other industry patents. However, depending on the proxy chosen, they are of similar or lower economic value compared to non-collaborative industry patents and to industry-industry collaborative patents. When we control for the experience of private companies in collaborating with academic institutions, we observe that more experienced collaborations produce slightly less sophisticated and impactful patents, but with higher economic value. We discuss different explanations of these findings.
    Keywords: University patent, patent value, patent collaboration, Science-Industry
    JEL: O31 O34
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (CEDEPLAR/UFMG); Jorge Nogueira de Paiva Britto (UFF); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (CEDEPLAR/UFMG)
    Abstract: This paper investigates a structural change: the emergence of a Global Innovation System (GIS). Focusing on international knowledge flows (IKFs) we organize the network in three layers according to the type of IKF that connects the institutions: scientific collaboration, patent citation or article citation in patents. We investigate how those three layers overlap and entangle, figuring out a network of networks. We found that each layer follows a free-scale network structure associated with a self-organized system and creates an intrinsic hierarchy. The subnetwork that connects the three layers is also a free-scale network. The intertemporal analysis shows that those properties persist from 2009 to 2017.Therefore, we identified a complex network structure that is very unlike being created by a random process. This structure shows hierarchy, association with self-organized systems, robustness, and specialization, which are the fundamental aspects necessary to define a system. In the context of this analysis, that is the Global Innovation System.
    Keywords: International knowledge flows; Innovation systems; Networks of networks
    JEL: O32 O34 O39
    Date: 2022–09
  3. By: Spyridon Tsangaris; Anastasios Xepapadeas; Athanasios Yannacopoulos
    Abstract: We incorporate the spatial dimension into a standard expanding variety growth model based on R&D. The spatial interaction is introduced through spatial production spillovers, knowledge diffusion across space, and the capability for spatial heterogeneity. Forward-looking agents who operate in a nite continuous geographic area choose how much to innovate at each point in time and space. We study the properties of equilibrium and optimal allocations and argue that the characteristics are different from those of the non-spatial model, which alter the appropriate policy measures. We show how spatial interactions may lead regions with spatial homogeneity to differ in their growth rates and areas with spatial heterogeneity to share the same growth rates in the long run. Finally, we present numerical examples to illustrate the different dynamic outcomes and stylized facts from the US economy.
    Keywords: endogenous growth, knowledge diffusion, R&D, scale effects, spatial development, spatial production externalities
    Date: 2022–10–03
  4. By: Duygu Buyukyazici; ; ;
    Abstract: The present study provides a framework to empirically integrate regional workplace knowledge and skills with the smart specialization concept. It evaluates the smart specialization priorities of regions with respect to skill relatedness and skill complexity measures to analyze to what extent they build on the regional skill base. It shows that leading and lagging regions strongly di↵er in their strategies. Leading regions tend to prioritize domains in which they have some experience and related capabilities while lagging regions choose domains in which they do not possess experience and capabilities.
    Keywords: skills, complexity, relatedness, smart specialization, diversification
    JEL: R11 O38 R58
    Date: 2022–09
  5. By: Ridwan Ah Sheikh (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics); Sunil Kanwar (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics)
    Abstract: Using disaggregated industry level data for 1976-2019, we find, unlike much of the received literature, that patent rights have a strong positive effect on developing country knowledge-intensive imports. Using the new gravity model of Anderson-van Wincoop, there is strong evidence of a market expansion effect across knowledge-intensive industries. The overall elasticity of knowledge-intensive imports w.r.t patent rights is 0.28, with considerable variation across industries, being 0.55 for electronics, 0.44 for rubber manufactures, and 0.32 for pharmaceuticals. This increase in imports appears to be (mainly) driven by quantity increases, not just price increases. Our results survive multiple robustness checks. Key Words: Imports, Intellectual property rights, Gravity model, Multilateral resistance JEL Codes: F13, F14, O34
    Date: 2022–09
  6. By: Lebdioui, Amir
    Abstract: One of the most important challenges of the 21st century is the quest for economic development models that respect the planet's ecosystem. Rather than imposing our industrial systems on nature, why not let nature influence our industrial and innovation systems? From wind turbine blades to bullet trains and solar cells, many of the technologies we rely on today have been inspired by solutions found in nature. Although relatively widespread in the fields of architecture and engineering, biomimicry/biomimetics remains largely overlooked in economics, public policy, and development studies. This is paradoxical because the world's remaining biodiversity stock-a knowledge bank of solutions to both current and unknown challenges- is largely held in developing economies and can be leveraged as a source of inspiration for -and entry door to- industrial innovation. This paper, therefore, investigates the relevance of biomimicry in the formulation of sustainable development strategies in biodiverse developing countries and maps out the national policy landscapes that can advance it. Several findings arise from this study. First, despite the exponential growth of biomimicry as a field and our understanding of its economic impact, what drives nature-inspired innovation remains elusive. Second, the biomimicry innovation landscape is dominated by industrialised economies that have relied on proactive policy interventions, while virtually no developing country has adopted biomimicry as an innovation strategy, consolidating the exploitation of the biodiversity in the developing world by firms in high-income nations. Third, by drawing on empirical evidence from a selection of Latin American countries, this paper shows that while biomimicry presents tremendous opportunities to leapfrog towards high value-added knowledge-intensive activities by using local biodiversity and related expertise as factor endowments, policy, and institutional factors have led to the persistence of important coordination failures that hinder the expansion and commercialization of biomimicry-based R&D. This paper concludes by discussing the public policies needed to support the integration of developing nations at the innovation frontier through biomimicry.
    Keywords: Biodiversity; biomimicry; economic upgrading; ecosystem services; innovation; sustainability economics
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2022–09–09
  7. By: Nagler, Markus (FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg, CESifo and LASER); Schnitzer, Monika (LMU Munich, CESifo and CEPR); Watzinger, Martin (University of Muenster, CESifo and CEPR)
    Abstract: How do licensing and technology transfer influence the spread of General Purpose Technologies? To answer this question, we analyze the diffusion of the transistor, one of the most important technologies of our time. We show that the transistor diffusion and cross-technology spillovers increased dramatically after AT&T began licensing its transistor patents along with symposia to educate follow-on inventors in 1952. Both these symposia and the licensing of the patents itself played important roles in the diffusion. A subsequent reduction in royalties did not lead to further increases, suggesting that licensing and technology transfer were more important than specific royalty rates.
    Date: 2021–11–15

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