nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2022‒09‒12
eight papers chosen by
Laura Nicola-Gavrila
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Flow of Ideas : Economic Societies and the Rise of Useful Knowledge By Cinnirella, Francesco; Hornung, Eric; Koschnick, Julius
  2. Nobel laurates and the role of the industry in the emergence of new scientific breakthroughs By Quentin Plantec; Pascal Le Masson; Benoît Weil
  3. Are big data a radical innovation trigger or a problem-solving patch? The case of AI implementation by automotive incumbents By Quentin Plantec; Marie-Alix Deval; Sophie Hooge; Benoît Weil
  4. Effet des caractéristiques de l'équipe dirigeante sur la performance organisationnelle des Sociétés Anonymes au Tchad By Franklin Djimta
  5. Development of the quality approach and skills management: Contribution and limit in four certified companies in the wilaya of Bejaia By Meziani Mustapha; Hania Hammiche; Lidia Izem
  6. The Impact of Digitalization and Trade Openness on Economic Growth: New Evidence from Richest Asian Countries By Bakari, Sayef; El Weriemmi, Malek; Mabrouki, Mohamed
  7. The Export of Medium and High-Tech Products Manufactured in Europe By Leogrande, Angelo; Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio
  8. The Impact of Digitalization and Patent on Economic Growth in Romania By Bakari, Sayef

  1. By: Cinnirella, Francesco (University of Bergamo); Hornung, Eric (University of Cologne); Koschnick, Julius (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: Economic societies emerged during the late eighteenth-century. We argue that these institutions reduced the costs of accessing useful knowledge by adopting, producing, and diffusing new ideas. Combining location information for the universe of 3,300 members across active economic societies in Germany with those of patent holders and World’s Fair exhibitors, we show that regions with more members were more innovative in the late nineteenth-century. This long-lasting effect of societies arguably arose through agglomeration economies and localized knowledge spillovers. To support this claim, we provide evidence suggesting an immediate increase in manufacturing, an earlier establishment of vocational schools, and a higher density of highly skilled mechanical workers by mid-nineteenth century in regions with more members. We also show that regions with members from the same society had higher similarity in patenting, suggesting that social networks facilitated spatial knowledge diffusion and, to some extent, shaped the geography of innovation
    Keywords: Economic Societies ; Useful Knowledge ; Knowledge Diffusion ; Innovation ; Social Networks JEL Classification: N33 ; O33 ; O31 ; O43
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Quentin Plantec (TSM - Toulouse School of Management Research - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - TSM - Toulouse School of Management - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées); Pascal Le Masson; Benoît Weil
    Abstract: Since the 1980s, many companies recognized for their major scientific breakthroughs (e.g., IBM, AT&T, etc.), cut their investments in fundamental research activities. In parallel, academics from public research organizations (PRO) and universities engaged more extensively with the industry through research collaborations. The conditions, determinants, and effects of academic engagement have been deeply analyzed. But, the extent to which major scientific breakthroughs of the last century have emerged either from (1) academics and researchers with no interaction with the industry or (2) from scientists interacting with the industry-either as engaged academics belonging to PRO or universities or as corporate scientistsare yet to be more systematically documented. To fill this gap, we explored the extent to which scientists from the quasi-complete cohort of Nobel laureates in Physics, Medicine, and Chemistry were interacting with the industry before their breakthrough discoveries. We designed a unique dataset of their ties with the industry based on affiliations review of 84,423 academic papers and applicant review of 5,207 patent families. First, we showed that one-fifth of the studied cohort of laureates was interacting with the industry before their breakthrough discovery. More importantly, this share is still increasing, mainly through academic engagement, while the share of awarded corporate scientists has remained stable since 1970. Second, we were able to analyze the effects of those interactions with the industry on the post-discovery period by comparing interacting and noninteracting with industry laureates' follow-on research works. While some scientific discoveries were partly made possible thanks to Nobel laureates' industrial partners, those laureates' follow-on knowledge works were not bound to their initial sets of partners. They experienced similar knowledge diffusion-to-industry rates than other laureates but higher academic production rates and diffusion-to-academia rates. Finally, we claim that the extent to which scientific new knowledge still emerges in relation to industrial contexts in modern science has been underevaluated and opens rooms for further research.
    Keywords: Scientific discovery,University-Industry collaborations,Nobel Prize,New Product Development,Knowledge absorption,Academic engagement
    Date: 2022–08
  3. By: Quentin Plantec (TSM - Toulouse School of Management Research - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - TSM - Toulouse School of Management - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées); Marie-Alix Deval; Sophie Hooge; Benoît Weil
    Abstract: Big data, supported by AI technologies, is mainly viewed as a trigger for radical innovation. The automotive industry appears as a key example: the most critical innovative challenges (e.g., autonomous driving, connected cars) imply drawing more extensively on big data. But the degree of innovativeness of the industrial purpose of incumbents, who are already embedding such technologies in their end-products, is worth investigating. To answer this research question, we relied on a mixed-method approach and used knowledge search as a theoretical framework. First, we conducted a quantitative analysis on 46,145 patents from the top-19 automotive incumbents. By comparing AI and non-AI patents, we showed that incumbents mainly rely on knowledge exploitation for data-driven innovation leading to incremental innovations. But, surprisingly, such innovation path foster more technologically original inventions with AI, which is not the case for non-AI patents. Second, we conducted a qualitative study to better understand this phenomenon. We showed that big data and AI technologies are integrated in the industrialization phase of new vehicles development process, following creative problem-solving logics. We also retrieved technical and organizational challenges limiting data-driven innovation. Those findings are discussed regarding the knowledge search and the new product development literature in the context of automotive industry.
    Keywords: Big data,AI technologies,automotive industry,digital transformation
    Date: 2022–06
  4. By: Franklin Djimta (UN - Université de Ngaoundéré/University of Ngaoundéré [Cameroun])
    Abstract: The issue of organizational effectiveness correlated to the executive manager has since agency theory been the subject of several debates and still arouses discussions among theorists and practitioners of management today. In companies, this question is at the heart of shareholder's concerns and is a major challenge for executive managers. This article, which follows on from the Upper Echelon Theory, studies beyond the main executive manager, the relationship between the characteristics of the entire Top Management Team and the organizational effectiveness of Public Limited Companies in Chad. The poor effectiveness of African firms over the last quarter century (UNIDO, 2016) and the accompanying plethora of dismissals of executive managers (CEOs and CIOs) has contributed to a growing scientific debate on the affecting of the Top Management Team characteristics on organizational effectiveness. Based on knowledge from the academic literature leading to the formulation of four research hypotheses first, and a sample of 78 Public Limited Companies in Chad secondly, the results of this study showed a significant effect of the characteristics of Top Management Team on organizational effectiveness.
    Abstract: La problématique de la performance organisationnelle corrélée à l'équipe dirigeante a depuis la théorie de l'agence fait l'objet de plusieurs débats et suscite encore aujourd'hui des discussions tant chez les théoriciens que chez les praticiens du management. Dans les entreprises, cette question est au cœur des préoccupations des actionnaires et constitue un défi majeur pour les dirigeants. Cet article qui s'inscrit dans la continuité de la théorie des échelons supérieurs étudie, au-delà du principal dirigeant, la relation entre les caractéristiques de toute l'équipe dirigeante et la performance organisationnelle des Sociétés Anonymes au Tchad. La piètre performance dégagée au cours de ce dernier quart de siècle par les entreprises africaines (UNIDO, 2016) et le nombre pléthore de limogeages des dirigeants (PDG et DG) qui l'accompagne ont contribué à l'augmentation de la vivacité du débat scientifique sur l'influence des caractéristiques de l'équipe dirigeante sur la performance organisationnelle. A partir des connaissances issues de la littérature académique ayant débouché sur la formulation de quatre hypothèses de recherche d'une part, et d'un échantillon de 78 Sociétés Anonymes opérant au Tchad d'autre part, les résultats de cette étude ont montré un effet significatif des caractéristiques de l'équipe dirigeante sur la performance organisationnelle.
    Keywords: Organizational effectiveness,Heterogeneity,Top Management Team,Public Limited Companies,Chad,Performance organisationnelle,Hétérogénéité,Equipe dirigeante,Société Anonyme,Tchad
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Meziani Mustapha (Université Abderrahmane Mira [Béjaïa]); Hania Hammiche (Université Abderrahmane Mira [Béjaïa]); Lidia Izem (Université Abderrahmane Mira [Béjaïa])
    Abstract: This research article aims to explore the relationship between the implementation of a QMS according to ISO 9001 standards and skills development. We know for a fact that producing quality is a matter of competence. The ISO 9001: 2015 standard recommends mastery of knowledge and skills as one of its requirements. But what really (in practice) about certified companies? The results of our survey in four certified companies show that all of the companies surveyed confirm the existence of a positive link between the QMS and skills management.
    Abstract: Cet article de recherche vise à explorer la relation existant entre la mise en place d'un SMQ selon les normes ISO 9001 et le développement des compétences. Nous savons pertinemment que produire la qualité est une question de compétence et de connaissance. La norme ISO 9001 : 2015 recommande dans l'une de ses exigences la maitrise de la connaissance et de la compétence. Mais qu'en-il réellement (dans la pratique) des entreprises certifiées ? Les résultats de notre enquête dans quatre entreprises certifiées montrent que la totalité des entreprises enquêtées confirment l'existence d'un lien positif entre le SMQ et le management des compétences.
    Keywords: Quality management,ISO standard,knowledge and skills,Management qualité,norme ISO,connaissances et compétences
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Bakari, Sayef; El Weriemmi, Malek; Mabrouki, Mohamed
    Abstract: The aim of this investigation is to check the impact of digitalization and trade openness on economic growth for top ten richest Asian countries. Static Gravity Model and Generalized Method of Moments Model were estimated. We found that digitalization and trade openness have a significant positive effect on economic growth. These results prove that trade openness and digitalization is a source of economic growth for richest Asian countries. Due to the magnitude of the positive externalities attached to the trade openness and digitalization, in terms of technology transfer bias, financial capacities, economic policies, human expertise, plenty of natural resources, large markets size, and spillover effect added to the domestic capacities and the national investment, the pace of the phenomenal economic performance of the Asian economies is very well marked.
    Keywords: Digitalization, Trade Openness, Economic Growth, Richest Asian Countries.
    JEL: E22 F10 F11 F13 F14 O16 O33 O47 O53
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Leogrande, Angelo; Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio
    Abstract: In this article we analyze the determinants and the export trend of European countries of medium and high technology products. The data were analyzed using various econometric models, namely WLS, Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects. The results show that exports of medium and high-tech products are positively associated, among other variables, with the value of “Average Annual GDP Growth”, “Total Entrepreneurial Activity” and “Sales Impacts”, and negatively associated with, among other variables, “Human Resources”, “Government and Procurement of Advanced Technology Products” and “Buyer Sophistication”. A cluster analysis was realized with the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette coefficient. The result showed the presence of only two clusters. Since this result was considered poorly representative of the industrial complexity of the European Union countries, a further analysis was carried out with the Elbow method. The result showed the presence of 6 clusters with the dominance of Germany and the economies connected to the German economy. In addition, a network analysis was carried out using the distance to Manhattan. Four complex network structures and two simplified network structures were detected. A comparison was then made between 10 machine learning algorithms for predicting the value of exports of medium and high-tech products. The result shows that the best performing algorithm is the SGD. An analysis with Augmented Data-AD was implemented with a comparison between 10 machine learning algorithms for prediction and the result shows that the Linear Regression algorithm is the best predictor. The prediction with the Augmented Data-AD allows to reduce the MAE by about 0.0022131 compared to the prediction with the Original Data-OD.
    Keywords: Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
    JEL: O30 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2022–08–16
  8. By: Bakari, Sayef
    Abstract: The study aims to investigate the impact of patent and digitalization on economic growth in Romania. Our data was retrieved from the World Development Indicators database (World Bank 2021) from the period 1990-2020. Empirical fundings indicated that digitalization and patent have a positive effect on economic growth. From these perspectives, the Romanian authorities should take seriously the patent and the potential of digitalization which can help the economy to be modernized, diversified, and robust to create new jobs and to find new markets and new strategic partners, and new opportunities.
    Keywords: Digitalization; Patent; Economic Growth; Romania.
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 O47 O52
    Date: 2022

This nep-knm issue is ©2022 by Laura Nicola-Gavrila. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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