nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2022‒02‒21
six papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Automation and Related Technologies: A Mapping of the New Knowledge Base By Santarelli, Enrico; Staccioli, Jacopo; Vivarelli, Marco
  2. Ratio Working Paper No. 351: Knowledge Spillovers in the Solar energy sector By Grafström, Jonas
  3. A hidden source of innovation? Revisiting the impact of initial vocational training on technological innovation By Matthies, Eike; Thomä, Jörg; Bizer, Kilian
  4. The "Tau" of Science - How to Measure, Study, and Integrate Quantitative and Qualitative Knowledge By Fanelli, Daniele
  5. Labor-related knowledge transfers from Chinese foreign direct investment in Ethiopia and Tanzania By Ellis, Mia; McMillan, Margaret S.; Sovani, Manali
  6. Network intelligence as a necessity of the new time By Belykh, Anastasia; Tolstoguzov, Oleg

  1. By: Santarelli, Enrico; Staccioli, Jacopo; Vivarelli, Marco
    Abstract: Using the entire population of USPTO patent applications published between 2002 and 2019, and leveraging on both patent classification and semantic analysis, this paper aims to map the current knowledge base centred on robotics and AI technologies. These technologies are investigated both as a whole and distinguishing core and related innovations, along a 4-level core-periphery architecture. Merging patent applications with the Orbis IP firm-level database allows us to put forward a twofold analysis based on industry of activity and geographic location. In a nutshell, results show that: (i) rather than representing a technological revolution, the new knowledge base is strictly linked to the previous technological paradigm; (ii) the new knowledge base is characterised by a considerable - but not impressively widespread - degree of pervasiveness; (iii) robotics and AI are strictly related, converging (particularly among the related technologies and in more recent times) and jointly shaping a new knowledge base that should be considered as a whole, rather than consisting of two separate GPTs; (iv) the US technological leadership turns out to be confirmed (although declining in relative terms in favour of Asian countries such as South Korea, China and, more recently, India).
    Keywords: Robotics,Artificial Intelligence,General Purpose Technology,Technological Paradigm,Industry 4.0,Patents full-text
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Grafström, Jonas (The Ratio Institute)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the existence and possible direction of international knowledge spillovers in the solar energy sector. Specifically, the paper investigates how the accumulation of solar energy patents and public R&D spending affected the output of domestic granted solar energy patents. The econometric analysis relies on a data set consisting of most of the OECD countries plus China and analyzes two time periods; from 1990 to 2014 and the years 2000 to 2014. To analyze the data material, a Poisson fixed-effects estimator based on the Hausman, Hall and Griliches (1984) method was used. The empirical findings suggest that the domestic accumulation of patents and R&D is important for the potential development of new ones. Indeed, early investment in specific technology can be an indicator of future leadership in that field.
    Keywords: Solar PV; R&D; Spillovers; Patents
    JEL: E61 O32 Q20 Q58
    Date: 2021–12–14
  3. By: Matthies, Eike; Thomä, Jörg; Bizer, Kilian
    Abstract: While an increasing number of studies postulate that vocational education and training (VET) activities have a positive impact on the innovative capacity of training companies, empirical evidence on the subject remains contradictory. This study exploits establishment data from a representative survey of German companies to estimate the correlations between firms' participation in initial VET and their innovation outcomes. The results based on linear probability models show that the impact of VET activity on innovation is indeed ambiguous. Overall, as expected, participation in initial VET has virtually no effect on radical product innovation. However, a positive impact of training apprentices is observed in case of incremental product innovation and process innovation activities. According to our estimates, this finding primarily applies to the case of microenterprises with fewer than ten employees. We conclude from this that active participation in the VET system primarily promotes the innovation activities of very small firms by stimulating knowledge diffusion in regional innovation systems and developing absorptive capacities at the company level. As a result, small-sized training firms should be more likely to succeed in overcoming - at least in part - some of their disadvantages in innovation.
    Keywords: Technological innovation,Vocational education and training (VET),Apprenticeships,SMEs
    JEL: I20 J24 O31
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Fanelli, Daniele
    Abstract: Scientists' ability to integrate diverse forms of evidence and evaluate how well they can explain and predict phenomena, in other words, $\textit{to know how much they know}$, struggles to keep pace with technological innovation. Central to the challenge of extracting knowledge from data is the need to develop a metric of knowledge itself. A candidate metric of knowledge, $K$, was recently proposed by the author. This essay further advances and integrates that proposal, by developing a methodology to measure its key variable, symbolized with the Greek letter $\tau$ ("tau"). It will be shown how a $\tau$ can represent the description of any phenomenon, any theory to explain it, and any methodology to study it, allowing the knowledge about that phenomenon to be measured with $K$. To illustrate potential applications, the essay calculates $\tau$ and $K$ values of: logical syllogisms and proofs, mathematical calculations, empirical quantitative knowledge, statistical model selection problems, including how to correct for "forking paths" and "P-hacking" biases, randomised controlled experiments, reproducibility and replicability, qualitative analyses via process tracing, and mixed quantitative and qualitative evidence. Whilst preliminary in many respects, these results suggest that $K$ theory offers a meaningful understanding of knowledge, which makes testable metascientific predictions, and which may be used to analyse and integrate qualitative and quantitative evidence to tackle complex problems.
    Date: 2022–01–07
  5. By: Ellis, Mia; McMillan, Margaret S.; Sovani, Manali
    Abstract: We examine worker training by Chinese manufacturing firms using nationally representative firm-level data from both Ethiopia and Tanzania. While Chinese firms make up a relatively small portion of the manufacturing industry in both Ethiopia and Tanzania, at the firm-level they contribute significantly to both domestic employment and labor training. In both countries more than 85 percent of the workers employed by Chinese firms are local, and Chinese firms (and other foreign firms) are more likely to offer labor training than their domestic counterparts. However, we find evidence that Chinese firms underperform relative to other foreign firms in the share of local workers employed, and in Tanzania the difference is especially large for managerial positions.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; TANZANIA; labour; training; knowledge; investment; manufacturing; foreign investment; Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); Chinese FDI; labour training; local employment
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Belykh, Anastasia; Tolstoguzov, Oleg
    Abstract: Realization of a modernization agenda requires improvement of competencies and intellectualization of territorial development of the management system in conditions of increasing uncertainty of the management situation and systemic risks. The purpose of our study was to analyze a spatial distribution of an intellectual potential of regions and propose a conclusion about leveling of risks from gaps in the economic space. We consider the following competencies as a basis of a potential that determines intellectualization of the management system. This is the ability to train personnel of HSQ and create and promote innovations. The factor analysis was used as a tool. The following conclusion was made: it is necessary to pay attention to development of national scientific schools because the education system is a basis for a formation of the competence economy. Moreover, it is necessary to stimulate development of the entire system of knowledge reproduction, and the entire space without gaps. The pandemic forced active development of digital platforms, transferring many spheres of public life. Opportunities for creating “the network intelligence” have increased. The need to improve competencies has increased, including development of a digital environment. It is possible to eliminate systemic risks that have arisen due to the gap in the economic space by strengthening collaborations based on digital platforms and forming “the network intelligence”. The basic element of knowledge reproduction is training of qualified personnel at the university education system. Therefore, it is necessary to continue strengthening the integration and form collective models of the innovation process.
    Keywords: Knowledge Economy; region; resilience; education; innovation
    JEL: R38 R58
    Date: 2021–08–10

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