nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2021‒01‒25
five papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  3. Promoting the diffusion of technology to boost productivity and well-being in Korea By Mathilde Pak
  4. Knowledge monitoring algorithm development for universities, using proctoring tools, for a group of students By Goncharenko, Lyudmila; Sybachin, Sergey; Khachaturov, Grigory
  5. The shifting contours of trade in knowledge: The new "trade-related aspects" of intellectual property By Taubman, Antony

  1. By: Wioleta Kucharska (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: In the knowledge economy era, knowledge production and dissemination are of key interest to individuals, organizations, and economies. Tacit knowledge results from experience, leading to innovation. The learning culture can facilitate the transformation of errors into experiences. This study explores whether mistake acceptance facilitates tacit knowledge awareness and sharing in the information technology, healthcare, and construction industries in Poland and the United States. The findings show the influence of mistake acceptance on knowledge production and the differences between countries and industries. The US showed a higher level of mistake acceptance, which was similar across the three industries, than did Poland, which showed differences between sectors. In general, the higher the acceptance of mistakes, the greater the effect of tacit knowledge awareness on sharing. This study shows that there is no knowledge production without learning and no learning without mistake acceptance.
    Keywords: Knowledge production, Tacit knowledge awareness, Tacit knowledge sharing, Learning culture, Mistake acceptance, Error management
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: Wioleta Kucharska (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland); G. Scott Erickson (Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, USA)
    Abstract: This study measures the relationship between tacit knowledge and innovation in the Polish and US information technology (IT) industries. Large samples were obtained, allowing quantitative modeling not possible in many tacit knowledge studies focused on more qualitative analysis. Conceptually, the study identifies the potential sources of tacit knowledge (learning-by-doing and/or learning-by-interaction), individual tacit knowledge development leading to a willingness to share, and the consequent correlation to process and/or product/service innovation. The important role of critical thinking as a control variable in tacit knowledge development in individuals is also identified as is the connection of process innovation as a mediator between tacit knowledge sharing and product/service innovation. The model is supported across both samples though with interesting differences across countries, particularly in sources of tacit knowledge (more learn-by-doing in the US), the link between awareness and sharing (stronger in US), and innovation (process as a full mediator in Poland, complementary in the US). The main theoretical contribution is empirical support for tacit knowledge's role in innovation, including the step-by-step details of how everything connects as well as details on how the model can differ by national context. The managerial implications include the care that must be taken to evaluate national circumstances and their potential impact on a firm's management of tacit knowledge.
    Keywords: Tacit knowledge, knowledge awareness, knowledge sharing, innovation, IT industry, Poland, USA
    Date: 2021–01
  3. By: Mathilde Pak
    Abstract: Korea is a top player in emerging digital technologies, with an outstanding digital infrastructure and a dynamic ICT sector. The COVID-19 outbreak highlighted the importance of digitalisation to contain the spread of the virus, by allowing quick testing and tracing of infected people, and spurred the development of the "untact economy". Remote access both facilitated physical distancing and mitigated the economic impact of the crisis by enabling more people to continue working. Digital technologies offer opportunities to raise firms’ productivity and the population’s well-being. However, wide productivity gaps between large firms and SMEs and between manufacturing and services weigh on economy-wide productivity, which is far below the OECD average. A wide skills gap between youth and older generations prevents an increasing share of the population from taking part in and enjoying the benefits from a digitalised economy. This paper suggests ways to narrow the digital divide by enhancing the diffusion of digital technologies among firms and among individuals. Increased participation in quality ICT education and training for students, teachers, SME workers and older people is key to address the lack of adequate skills and awareness of digital benefits or dangers (online security, cyberbullying, addiction). Promoting innovation networks between SMEs, academia and large firms through vouchers or platforms can support SMEs’ R&D and commercialisation of innovative goods and services. Waiving stringent regulations through regulatory sandboxes can help identify and alter regulations that hinder the adoption and diffusion of digital technologies.
    Keywords: COVID-19, digital divide, Korea, productivity, regulatory sandboxes, SMEs, well-being
    JEL: I31 J24 L25 L51 O3
    Date: 2021–01–21
  4. By: Goncharenko, Lyudmila; Sybachin, Sergey; Khachaturov, Grigory
    Abstract: This article is devoted to the issues associated with the organization and implementation of a reliable monitoring of students' knowledge in a higher education institution in the context of a challenging epidemiological situation in the world and a forced full-scale educational process transfer to an electronic implementation format. In early 2020, higher education institutions were not ready to switch over to a distance work format. Educational organizations encountered a huge list of problems affecting literally every single element of the educational process. The most strongly this transition affected the students' knowledge monitoring process. At that time, universities had neither regulatory, nor methodological information base that could become a basis for developing individual approaches to solving the problem of knowledge monitoring process organization, using information technologies; the experience in arranging training sessions, accumulated by institutions over the past six months, gives the advantage. However, it’s important to understand that it’s impossible to control students' knowledge en-masse in approximately the same time interval without appropriate software and an established performance algorithm & implementation procedure.
    Keywords: distance learning, higher education institutions, knowledge monitoring, algorithm
    JEL: A22 O33
    Date: 2020–11–20
  5. By: Taubman, Antony
    Abstract: This paper charts the evolution and diversification of trade in knowledge that has taken place in the quarter-century since the WTO TRIPS Agreement came into force. Entirely new markets have come into being, potentially redefining the very character of 'trade'. The disruptive effect of digital technology has led to much of the content - formerly conceived of as 'added value' embedded in physical carrier media, traded and measured as 'goods' - can be traded in the form of specific licences that use IP rights covering the content that is increasingly accessed online in digital form. These new forms of exchange in valuable intangible content confront fundamental assumptions about the nature of trade and its interaction with the IP system, forcing a rethink of what constitutes the 'trade-related aspects' of intellectual property. The issues examined include the principle of territoriality of IP rights and the segmentation of markets according to national jurisdictions; the structuring of cross-border commercial exchanges into the two discrete categories of 'goods' and 'services'; the emerging disparity in regional trade agreements between provisions on digital IP standards and on digital products and e-commerce; and the significance of IP rights being treated as assets in investment treaties. Whatever formal or legal overlay is applied to these new trading arrangements - it is essential to understand that this is now trade in IP licences as such, rather than trade in goods that have an IP component as an adjunct or ancillary element. TRIPS came about at a time when economic growth theory incorporated intangible knowledge as an endogenous factor, rather than maintaining it as exogenous to models of growth. Trade policy must similarly work to incorporate an understanding of the trade in IP licences itself within cross-border commercial exchanges as an integral element of international trading relations: sale and licensing of IP rights can then be considered 'endogenous' to trade. This is essential for an accurate empirical picture of trade relations today, given the economic significance both of dispersed global value chains and of trade in 'pure' IP content as such particularly in the creative sectors.
    Keywords: intellectual property,trade in knowledge,digital trade,TRIPS Agreement
    JEL: F13 K10 K33 O30 O34 I18
    Date: 2020

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