nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2020‒04‒20
four papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. From closed to open: A comparative stakeholder approach for developing open innovation activities in SMEs By Sana Saidi; Anne Berthinier-Poncet; Allane Madanamoothoo; Wim Vanhaverbeke; Simona Grama-Vigouroux
  2. The Middle-Income Trap 2.0: The Increasing Role of Human Capital in the Age of Automation and Implications for Developing Asia By Wagner, Helmut; Glawe, Linda
  3. Theorization of Institutional Change in the Rise of Artificial Intelligence By Masashi Goto
  4. Robotisation, Employment and Industrial Growth Intertwined Across Global Value Chains By Mahdi Ghodsi; Oliver Reiter; Robert Stehrer; Roman Stöllinger

  1. By: Sana Saidi (ESC Troyes - École Supérieure de Commerce de Troyes - Groupe ESC Troyes en Champagne); Anne Berthinier-Poncet (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM]); Allane Madanamoothoo (ESC Troyes - École Supérieure de Commerce de Troyes - Groupe ESC Troyes en Champagne); Wim Vanhaverbeke (UNIS - University of Surrey); Simona Grama-Vigouroux (ESC Troyes - École Supérieure de Commerce de Troyes - Groupe ESC Troyes en Champagne)
    Abstract: Recent literature on open innovation (OI) highlights the need for studies regarding the factors that influence firms to switch from a closed to an OI strategy. At the same time, stakeholder literature points out the scarcity of knowledge regarding antecedent factors fostering collaboration with the firm's stakeholders and their engagement for higher value creation. To fill these gaps, we propose an analytical framework for implementing a strategic OI process through the development of stakeholder engagement. Our framework comprises 17 factors grouped in five levers: knowledge, collaboration, organizational, strategic, and financial. We empirically applied this framework to two industrial SMEs. A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with internal and external stakeholders of both firms. The results show that one company successfully implemented the OI process, while the other struggled to evolve from a traditionally closed innovation model to a more open model. Analyzing the results, we identified several aspects that could explain this difference. These aspects concern the OI activities performed by both firms, the combination of the five levers into a coherent OI approach, stakeholder engagement, and the characteristics of the CEOs. The current study contributes insights for theory and practice, especially as it proposes an original framework for developing a strategic OI process that integrates a stakeholder approach.
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Wagner, Helmut; Glawe, Linda
    Abstract: We modify the concept of the middle-income trap (MIT) against the background of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the (future) challenges of automation (creating the concept of the "MIT 2.0") and discuss the implications for developing Asia. In particular, we analyze the impacts of automation, artificial intelligence, and digitalization on the growth drivers of emerging market economies and the MIT mechanism. Our findings suggest that improving human capital accumulation, particularly the upgrading of skills needed with the rapid advance of automation, will be key success factors for overcoming the MIT 2.0.
    Keywords: automation,AI,human capital,middle-income trap,developing Asia,economic development,economic growth,employment
    JEL: J24 O10 O11 O15 O33 O47 O53
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Masashi Goto (Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University, Japan)
    Abstract: This study explores how professional institutional change is theorized in the context of the emergence of disruptive technology as a precipitating jolt. I conducted a case study of two Big four accounting firms in Japan on their initiatives to apply artificial intelligence (AI) to their core audit services between 2015 and 2017. The data shows the process for incumbent dominant organizations to collaborate and develop social perceptions about the changing but continuing relevance of their profession. The analysis suggests that the retheorization can advance even without concrete alternative templates when disruptive technology is perceived to have overwhelming influences, following multi-level steps progressing from internal to external theorization. This article proposes a grounded theory model of the process of professional institutional change: (1) Theorizing change internally at the field, (2) Developing solutions by experimentations in organizations, (3) Exploring solutions driven by individuals in organizations and (4) Theorizing change externally by organizations. It contributes to the profession and institutional scholarship by expanding our knowledge about the diversity of professional institutional field change process in this age of increasing technology influences on organizations.
    Keywords: Institutional change; Professions; Artificial intelligence; Qualitative research; Grounded theory
    Date: 2020–03
  4. By: Mahdi Ghodsi (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Oliver Reiter (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Roman Stöllinger (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: The global economy is currently experiencing a new wave of technological change involving new technologies, especially in the realm of artificial intelligence and robotics, but not limited to it. One key concern in this context is the consequences of these new technologies on the labour market. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the direct and indirect effects of the rise of industrial robots and productivity via international value chains on various industrial indicators, including employment and real value added. The paper thereby adds to the existing empirical work on the relationship between technological change, employment and industrial growth by adding data on industrial robots while controlling for other technological advancements measured by total factor productivity (TFP). The results indicate that the overall impact of the installation of new robots did not statistically affect the growth of industrial employment during the period 2000–2014 significantly, while the overall impact on the real value added growth of industries in the world was positive and significant. The methodology also allows for a differentiation between the impact of robots across various industries and countries based on two different perspectives of source and destination industries across global value chains. Disclaimer This is a background paper for the UNIDO Industrial Development Report 2020. Industrializing in the digital age.
    Keywords: Robotisation, digitalisation, global value chains, total factor productivity, industrial growth, employment, value added
    JEL: D57 J21 L16 O14
    Date: 2020–04

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