nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2019‒12‒23
five papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Public R&D and green knowledge diffusion:\r\nEvidence from patent citation data By Gianluca ORSATTI
  2. The enhancement of self-directed learning through the engagement in problem-based learning activities during a professional development programme on Indigenous Knowledge for Technology teachers By Benjamin Seleke; Marietjie Havenga; Josef De Beer
  3. Determinants of growth in research spin-offs: a resource-based perspective By Elisa Salvador; Cristina Marullo; Andrea Piccaluga
  4. Intellectual property rights and the commodification of nature: the case of seeds By Gentilucci, Eleonora
  5. Regarding the possibilities of connections between the transfer of technologies, knowledge and production of knowledge and information in the area of development and managerial skills? enhancement By Miroslava Szarková; Benita Belá?ová

  1. By: Gianluca ORSATTI
    Abstract: The present paper investigates the relationship between public R&D and the diffusion of green knowledge. To do so, we exploit information contained in green patents filed at the European Patent Office from 1980 to 1984. The diffusion of green knowledge is measured by meaning of patent citations. The level of public R&D is instrumented through the policy reaction to the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident – that affected the level of public R&D in the energy generation domain – in a difference in differences setting. Results show that a 10% increase in public R&D increases by around 0.7% the number of citations to green patents. Moreover, increasing public R&D fosters the diffusion of green knowledge across traditional (non-green) domains and increases the average technological distance of inventions citing green patents. This evidence suggests that public R&D is a driver of green knowledge diffusion, accelerates the hybridization of traditional innovation processes and fosters technological diversification.
    Keywords: Public R&D, Green innovation, Knowledge diffusion, Patent citations, Environmental policy, Green R&D
    JEL: O30 O32 O33 O38 Q55
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Benjamin Seleke (North-West University); Marietjie Havenga (North-West University); Josef De Beer (North-West University)
    Abstract: The aim of this qualitative case study was to explore the affordances of a short learning programme to sensitize Technology teachers towards self-directed learning regarding the infusion of indigenous knowledge in the curriculum. The short learning programme on indigenous knowledge was structured according to the steps of problem-based learning. Technology teachers participated in this short learning programme as part of their continuous professional development. Among others, the national curriculum accentuates active learning as well as the appreciation of indigenous knowledge as a valued resource of history and culture. It is essential that Technology teachers are supported to acquire indigenous knowledge themselves and enable them to effectively guide learners in this regard. Accordingly, a short learning programme was developed and implemented for the purpose of the training of Technology teachers. Qualitative data was collected through reflective sheets, a focus group interview, as well as photographic artefacts, in order to generate an integrated qualitative dataset. During meticulous thematic qualitative data analysis, using protocol coding (a priori coding) data was organised and grouped into related themes. The emerging themes not only provided evidence for the acquisition of problem-based learning skills, but also revealed the inherent ability of problem-based learning related to indigenous knowledge, to enhance self-directed learning abilities among Technology teachers.
    Keywords: indigenous knowledge, problem-based learning, professional development, self-directed learning, technology teachers
    JEL: I23 I24
    Date: 2019–10
  3. By: Elisa Salvador (ESSCA - Groupe ESSCA); Cristina Marullo (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna [Pisa]); Andrea Piccaluga (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna [Pisa])
    Abstract: There are strong expectations towards research spin-offs, but insufficient empirical evidence still exists on the determinants of growth of such companies. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate on growth -or non-growth- of research spin-offs through a focus on Italy. A resource-based perspective is adopted for identifying the crucial determinants of competitive advantage of these companies, and an OLS regression analysis is performed to assess the impact of initial resources on growth in revenues and employees. Our analysis highlights unexpected results about the involvement of industrial partners, venture capitalists, size of IPRs' portfolio at founding and previous experience of the promoting partners.
    Abstract: Il existe de fortes attentes en ce qui concerne les entreprises spin-off de la recherche, mais il existe encore peu d'évidence empirique sur les déterminants de la croissance de ces entreprises. L'objectif de cet article est de contribuer au débat sur la croissance -ou la non-croissance- des entreprises spin-off de la recherche en mettant l'accent sur l'Italie. Une perspective basée sur les ressources est adoptée pour identifier les déterminants cruciaux de l'avantage concurrentiel de ces entreprises, et une analyse de régression OLS est effectuée pour évaluer l'impact des ressources initiales sur la croissance des revenus et des employés. Notre analyse met en évidence des résultats inattendus concernant la participation de partenaires industriels, de capital-risqueurs, la taille du portefeuille de DPI à la fondation et l'expérience antérieure des partenaires de promotion.
    Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship,research spin-offs,Technology transfer,Knowledge valorisation,Resource-based view
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Gentilucci, Eleonora
    Abstract: The paper uses the Ostromian analytical framework of CPRs and commons definitions, in order to analyze the effect of the introduction of IPRs on the seeds. The main contribution of this research is twofold. On the one hand it allows to validate the initial hypothesis (H1) namely that, throughout the history, until the introduction of IPRs on the living (S0), seeds were CPRs and commons and, after the introduction of IPRs (S1), seeds became private goods. The analysis carried out shows that seeds are commons of knowledge and natural resource and that the introduction of IPRs has allowed the appropriation of a resource that was previously common. This is the “commodification” process. On the other hand study deeps a specific tool to overcome the enclosure imposed by IPRs, to seeds: namely the application of free software principles to seeds. This enables a return to the reverse process of “commonification”.
    Keywords: Seeds, Knowledge commons, Common-pool resources, Intellectual property rights, Free software.
    JEL: B52 O13 O34 P14 P16
    Date: 2018–12–13
  5. By: Miroslava Szarková (University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of Business Management, Department of Management); Benita Belá?ová (University of Economics in Bratislava)
    Abstract: The quality and level of managers? managerial skills significantly influences the competitiveness of the company. They present a qualitative, acquired entity in educational process, which has to be constantly developed within educational programmes and improved within social interactions. In the recent period, a massive input of information and communication technologies, mostly social media, which enable an effective connection of the transfer of technologies and knowledge with the production of knowledge and information in the educational process of managers, can be observed in the process of managerial skills? improvement and development. The article deals with the knowledge and information about the possibilities of managerial skills? development using information communication technologies in companies acting in the Slovak Republic. It compares the results of the monitoring obtained within the project APVV SK-CZ -0108-09 with the results of the research, which was carried out in 2018-2019 within the project VEGA 1/0309/18.
    Keywords: Managerial skills, information communication technologies, social media, social networks, education of managers
    JEL: I25 M21
    Date: 2019–10

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