nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2019‒10‒14
eight papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Japanese Knowledge Transfer via Training in Mexico?s Automotive Industry By LEO GUZMAN-ANAYA
  2. International knowledge flows between industry inventors and universities: The role of multinational companies By Fassio, Claudio; Geuna, Aldo; Rossi, Federica
  3. Transition Towards a Green Economy in Europe: Innovation and Knowledge Integration in the Renewable Energy Sector By Mancusi, Maria Luisa; Conti, Chiara; Sanna-Randaccio, Francesca; Sestini, Roberta
  4. Organization of Knowledge and Taxation By Marek Kapicka; Ctirad Slavik
  5. Effects of Offshore Production and R&D on Domestic Innovation Activities By YAMASHITA Nobuaki; YAMAUCHI Isamu
  6. Scientific Competition between Countries: Did China Get What It Paid for? By Pierre Courtioux; François Métivier; Antoine Rebérioux
  7. Science and innovations in Russia in 2018 By Dezhina Irina
  8. International Talent Inflow and R&D Investment: Firm-level Evidence from China By Hao Wei; Ran Yuan; Laixun Zhao

  1. By: LEO GUZMAN-ANAYA (University of Guadalajara)
    Abstract: The automotive industry has been considered a source for development because of its impact on employment, knowledge transfer capabilities and backward and forward linkages with other industries. However, only a handful of developing countries have achieved an internationally competitive automotive industry. This might be attributable to the industry requiring not only skilled labor but also a strong supporting industry able to provide from 20,000 to 30,000 parts and components. In an ideal setting, supplier firms and assembly plants work interconnected creating positive externalities to each other, but for developing countries, it has been shown that this is difficult to achieve. The case of Mexico stands out as a country that has successfully attracted major automotive assemblers but has not been able to develop a solid supplier base. Despite the increasing presence of Japanese firms in Mexico, local firms have not been able to enter automotive chains primarily due to the inability to meet technological and quality requirements. This study analyzes specific cases of knowledge transfer to local firms under a training project from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The results show improvements in quality and productivity measurements of participating firms. The knowledge acquired through training was internalized and diffused within the firm allowing for industry-specific certifications, market growth, and market diversification.
    Keywords: Knowledge Transfer, Training Programs, Automotive Industry
    JEL: M53 L62 O19
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Fassio, Claudio (Lund University); Geuna, Aldo (University of Torino); Rossi, Federica (University of London)
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of industry researchers’ interactions with universities in different localities, distinguishing between local and international universities. We analyze the extent to which local and international interactions are enabled by different types of individual personal networks (education, career based), and by their access to different business networks through their employer companies (local vs. domestic or international multinational company networks). We control for selection bias and numerous other individual and firm-level factors identified in the literature as important determinants of interaction with universities. Our findings suggest that industry researchers’ personal networks play a greater role in promoting interactions with local universities (i.e. in the same region, and other regions in the same country) while researcher employment in a multinational is especially important for establishing interaction with universities abroad.
    Keywords: University-industry interaction; international knowledge flows; MNEs; social network; education network; career network
    JEL: F23 I23 L24 O31
    Date: 2019–10–04
  3. By: Mancusi, Maria Luisa; Conti, Chiara; Sanna-Randaccio, Francesca; Sestini, Roberta
    Abstract: This paper investigates the fragmentation of the EU innovation system in the field of renewable energy sources (RES) by estimating the intensity and direction of knowledge spillovers over the years 1985-2010. We modify the original double exponential knowledge diffusion model proposed by Caballero and Jaffe (1993) to provide information on the degree of integration of EU countries’ RES knowledge bases and to assess how citation patterns changed over time. We show that EU RES inventors have increasingly built “on the shoulders of the other EU giants”, intensifying their citations to other member countries and decreasing those to domestic inventors. Furthermore, the EU strengthened its position as source of RES knowledge for the US. Finally, we show that this pattern is peculiar to RES, with other traditional (i.e. fossil-based) energy technologies and other radically new technologies behaving differently. We provide suggestive, but convincing evidence that such decrease in fragmentation around the turn of the century emerged as a result of the EU increased support for RES taking mainly the form of demand-pull policies.
    Keywords: EU integration; renewable energy technologies; knowledge flows
    JEL: O31 Q42 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2018–12
  4. By: Marek Kapicka (UCSB); Ctirad Slavik (CERGE-EI)
    Abstract: This paper studies how income taxation interacts with the organization of knowledge and production, and ultimately the distribution of wages in the economy. A more progressive tax system reduces the time that managers allocate to work. This makes the organization of production less efficient and reduces wages at both tails of the distribution, which increases lower tail wage inequality and decreases upper tail wage inequality. The optimal tax system is significantly less progressive than the current one in the United States, because a less progressive tax system also generates a less unequal wage distribution.
    Date: 2019
  5. By: YAMASHITA Nobuaki; YAMAUCHI Isamu
    Abstract: There has been a global shift in the distribution of manufacturing jobs and activities away from high-wage countries to low-wage countries for the past few decades. This paper examines a largely unexplored channel of the effects of offshore production on onshore (domestic) innovation performance. Controlling for the endogeneity, we find that increased offshore employment and R&D do not have positive impact on the domestic innovation measured by the number of patent applications and the number of forward citations on average. However, offshore R&D increases the quality of domestic innovation when the firms expand R&D function to the developed countries while it has a negative effect in the developing countries. We also find a synergistic effect between production and R&D activities. Therefore, separating the two activities can decrease the efficiency of resource allocation on the domestic innovation.
    Date: 2019–09
  6. By: Pierre Courtioux (EDHEC Business School et Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); François Métivier (Université de Paris, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris); Antoine Rebérioux (Université de Paris, Ladyss)
    Abstract: This paper examines the rise of China's relative standing in the global academic science marketplace. We first develop a simple theoretical model, based on the aggregation of individual knowledge production functions. This model predicts the existence of a stable power (scaling) law, relating the world share of countries' scientific production to their world share of public investment in scientific research. We test and confirm this prediction, using bibliometric cross-country longitudinal data for OECD and non-OECD countries, over the 1996-2015 period. This analysis allows for China's impressive catch-up, and for the West's decline to be accounted for, in the science marketplace, over the last two decades
    Keywords: economics of science; knowledge production function; internal ranking
    JEL: O38 P5
    Date: 2019–09
  7. By: Dezhina Irina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The past year marked the start of drawing up new integrated technological development plans for the Russian science and technology. The plans were originally presented by an Executive Order of the Russian President and then evolved into a nationwide project called “The ‘Science’ National Project” which is in turn linked to the Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation adopted in 2016 as well as a national program called “Digital Economy of the Russian Federation.” In addition to the plans, there were some important organizational changes that led to the ultimate separation of former academic research institutes from the Russian Academy of Science (the Academy) and to the establishment of a single Ministry of Science and Higher Education with authority over institutions of higher education and research-performing organizations, while the Academy was granted the legal status of public expert organization. Other important changes include positive moves towards the development of science in institutions of higher education and more active position of regional government authorities with regard to scientific and technological development. Yet, no breakthroughs or visible changes in technological innovations took place.
    Keywords: Russian economy, R&D, science, technology
    JEL: O31 O32 O3 I28 I2
    Date: 2019
  8. By: Hao Wei (Department of International Economics, Beijing Normal University); Ran Yuan (Department of International Economics, Beijing Normal University); Laixun Zhao (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan)
    Abstract: Using firm-level R&D data with regional international talent data, we find that international talent increases the R&D investment of Chinese manufacturing firms, a result that is further confirmed with patent data and under a number of robustness checks. These findings stem from two mechanisms: international talent boosts human capital accumulation and provides a diversified labor force. Further, the R&D promoting effect is stronger if firms are located in eastern China rather than in other regions, of small and medium-sized rather than large-sized, of domestic ownership rather than foreign ownership. The policy implication is, the introduction of international talent can be a new way to promoting R&D investment, especially for skilled-labor constrained countries.
    Keywords: International talent inflow, Manufacturing firms, R&D, Patent application
    JEL: F16 F22 O32
    Date: 2019–09

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