nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2019‒06‒24
nine papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Patent citations, knowledge flows and catching-up: evidences of different national experiences for the period 1982-2006 By Jorge Nogueira de Paiva Britto; Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Lucas Teixeira Araújo; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  2. The Changing Structure of American Innovation: Some Cautionary Remarks for Economic Growth By Ashish Arora; Sharon Belenzon; Andrea Patacconi; Jungkyu Suh
  3. Technology Gaps, Trade and Income By Thomas Sampson
  4. Property Rights and Long-Run Capital By Julio Davila
  5. Practical Guidelines on Open Education for Academics: modernising higher education via open educational practices By Andreia Inamorato dos Santos
  6. An assessment of IPA public investment in R&I in Albania By Olga Diukanova; Andrea Conte; Simone Salotti
  7. Vers une éducation ouverte : Faire, réflexivité et culture pour une éducation-recherche By François-Xavier de Vaujany; Amélie Bohas; Olivier Irrmann
  8. Innovating Professional Development in Higher Education: Case Studies By Andreia Inamorato dos Santos; Simonas Gausas; Raimonda Mackeviciute; Aiste Jotautyte; Zilvinas Martinaitis
  9. Migrants' digital knowledge flows: How digital transformation shapes social behaviour By David, Alexandra; Terstriep, Judith; Sospiro, Paolo; Scibè, Elisa

  1. By: Jorge Nogueira de Paiva Britto (Universidade Federal Fluminense); Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (Cedeplar-UFMG); Lucas Teixeira Araújo (Universidade Federal Fluminense); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: The investigation comprises information about patent citations distributed by different technological domains, which are used to map knowledge flows and to correlate these flows with the evolution of countries' competences. Specifically, the analysis uses information about patent citations to track and discuss the evolution of knowledge flows to a set of selected countries involved in catching-up up processes.. The analysis comprises an analysis of patent citation data extracted from the USPTO database from the period 1982-2006, including information about citations extracted from patents granted by national companies of the selected countries, presented trough technological interaction matrices crossing information of different technological domains of the patents, correlating the technological domains of the patents citing other patents with the technological domains of the patents cited. The hypothesis is that the intensification and diversification of knowledge flows to a greater number of fields broadens the possibilities of identifying attractive opportunities for innovation, magnifying the possibilities of development and catching-up. The analysis tries to identify which technological fields concentrate the absorption and diffusion of knowledge in a given country along different periods, which tends to be connected to the possibilities of catching up processes.
    Keywords: Patent Citations; International Knowledge flows; Innovation Systems
    Date: 2019–06
  2. By: Ashish Arora; Sharon Belenzon; Andrea Patacconi; Jungkyu Suh
    Abstract: A defining feature of modern economic growth is the systematic application of science to advance technology. However, despite sustained progress in scientific knowledge, recent productivity growth in the U.S. has been disappointing. We review major changes in the American innovation ecosystem over the past century. The past three decades have been marked by a growing division of labor between universities focusing on research and large corporations focusing on development. Knowledge produced by universities is not often in a form that can be readily digested and turned into new goods and services. Small firms and university technology transfer offices cannot fully substitute for corporate research, which had integrated multiple disciplines at the scale required to solve significant technical problems. Therefore, whereas the division of innovative labor may have raised the volume of science by universities, it has also slowed, at least for a period of time, the transformation of that knowledge into novel products and processes.
    JEL: O3
    Date: 2019–05
  3. By: Thomas Sampson
    Abstract: This paper studies the origins and consequences of international technology gaps. I develop an endogenous growth model where R&D efficiency varies across countries and productivity differences emerge from firm-level technology investments. The theory characterizes how innovation and learning determine technology gaps, trade and global income inequality. Countries with higher R&D efficiency are richer and have comparative advantage in more innovation-dependent industries where the advantage of backwardness is lower and knowledge spillovers are more localized. I estimate R&D efficiency by country and innovation-dependence by industry from R&D and bilateral trade data. Calibrating the model implies technology gaps, due to cross-country differences in R&D efficiency, account for around one-quarter to one-third of nominal wage variation within the OECD.
    Keywords: technology gaps, trade, technology investment, Ricardian comparative advantage, international income inequality
    JEL: F11 F43 O14 O41
    Date: 2019–06
  4. By: Julio Davila (Center for Operations Research and Econometrics CORE - UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: The fact that some proprietary capital gradually falls into the public domain (e.g. patents) or is taxed to fund productive public spending (e.g. public infrastructures and the institutional framework) inefficiently decreases capital accumulation, impacting households' consumption. Specifically, for a neoclassical infinitely-lived agents economy with constant returns to scale the planner's steady state consumption is 4.6%-9.1% higher than the market one —for standard empirically supported parameters. For a similarly parametrised overlapping generations economy it is around 10.5%. A tax and subsidy balanced policy able to decentralise the planner's steady consists of (i) subsidising the rental rate of private capital by an amount equal to its depreciation by (ii) taxing households' net position between, on the one hand, firm and depreciated capital ownership and, on the other, borrowing against future dividends and its resale value. From standard functions and parameterisations of the OG setup it follows that the savings rate decentralising the planner's steady state is close to 61.5% —of which ⅓ in loans to firms and ⅔ in real monetary balances and assets ownership net of borrowing against the latter— and that the tax rate on household net debt is smaller the bigger are monetary real balances and debt.
    Keywords: Property rights,capital accumulation
    Date: 2019–05
  5. By: Andreia Inamorato dos Santos (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: These guidelines are for the academic staff of higher education institutions, with the goal of helping them move towards the use of open educational practices (OEP) in order to widen participation in education. The guidelines are meant to provide an understanding of each of the ten dimensions of open education based on the OpenEdu Framework (JRC, 2016), and to show how academics can start using OEP to prompt inclusion and innovation as important values, starting from their day-to-day activities such as teaching, knowledge creation and research.
    Keywords: open education, higher education, open educational practices, OEP, open educationalresources, OER, universities, academics, teaching, teachers
    Date: 2019–05
  6. By: Olga Diukanova (European Commission - JRC); Andrea Conte (European Commission - JRC); Simone Salotti (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is supporting an Innovation Agenda for the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, Republic of North Macedonia and Serbia). Smart Specialisation is the European Union (EU) place-based policy aiming at more thematic concentration in research and innovation (R&I) investments via the evidence-based identification of the strengths and potential of a given economy. Access to data and economic analysis are key to a better identification of both current and future socio-economic policy challenges. The EU Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) supports reforms in the enlargement countries with financial and technical help. Out of the almost €650 million destined to Albania over the programming period 2014-2022, €44 are supporting competitiveness and innovation. Policy simulations using CGE modelling techniques show positive macro-economic effects of the IPA funds for competitiveness and innovation both in the short run and in the long run thanks to productivity improvements.
    Keywords: rhomolo, region, growth, impact assessment, modelling, R&D, R&I, Western Balkans, Albania, investment
    JEL: C68 E62 R13
    Date: 2019–05
  7. By: François-Xavier de Vaujany (Université Paris-Dauphine); Amélie Bohas (CRET-LOG - Centre de Recherche sur le Transport et la Logistique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Olivier Irrmann (UCL - Université catholique de Lille)
    Abstract: Les sciences ouvertes et citoyennes connaissent un intérêt et croissant de la part des chercheurs, des étudiants et des activistes. L'idée de libérer et de coproduire la connaissance est déjà ancienne, mais le développement d'infrastructures digitales globales, les cultures du libre, de nouveaux régimes de propriétés et les mouvements maker et hacker ont accéléré un certain nombre de transformations. Les connaissances se produisent et se diffusent plus que jamais en dehors des lieux institutionnels de savoir. Cependant, une partie du monde académique traditionnel reste perméable à la culture des sciences ouvertes. Plus généralement, la dichotomie entre (co)production et diffusion de connaissances reste vive. Cette note de recherche propose un diagnostic de cette situation en partant tout d'abord des tendances en cours dans la société française. Constatant un certain nombre de décalages qui sont autant d'opportunités et de leviers pour une éducation ouverte, les auteurs s'appuient ensuite sur huit expérimentations réalisées en France et en Italie afin de faire des propositions. Toutes convergent vers l'idée d'une éducation ouverte qui ne serait que le prolongement ou le chiasme des sciences ouvertes. La note s'achève par trois propositions très politiques pour une éducation-recherche ouverte.
    Keywords: sciences ouvertes,Citizen sciences,Sciences citoyennes,Apprentissage ouverts,Université dans la cité,Communalisation,Éducation ouverte,Open science,Communs de connaissances
    Date: 2019–06–06
  8. By: Andreia Inamorato dos Santos (European Commission - JRC); Simonas Gausas; Raimonda Mackeviciute; Aiste Jotautyte; Zilvinas Martinaitis
    Abstract: This report contains a literature review and in-depth analyses of eleven case studies involving innovative practices for the professional development of academics. The goal is to highlight not only what is new in current practices but also the future prospects for higher education institutions in Europe and the challenges they face. It accompanies the Science for Policy report ‘Innovating Professional Development in Higher Education: An Analysis of Practices’, JRC 2019. 
    Keywords: higher education, university teaching, CPD, continuous professional development, education, academics, universities, open education
    Date: 2019–05
  9. By: David, Alexandra; Terstriep, Judith; Sospiro, Paolo; Scibè, Elisa
    Abstract: * From a macro-perspective, digital transformation regarded as a continuous process not only impacts our daily lives but also influences social phenomena such as migration processes. * Rather than a luxury item, for refugees' smartphones appear to open a "new window" to the outside world, which influence social behaviour. * Digital, real-time knowledge and information exchange help refugees to find orientation on their escape routes and within the receiving country and thus, are likely to affect migration processes. * Digital apps and social media in particular are important information and communication channels, which accelerate the circulation of information. However, they might also contribute to the creation of positive and negative myths about destination countries.
    Date: 2019

This nep-knm issue is ©2019 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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