nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2019‒04‒08
eight papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. A critical realist knowledge production: Enhancing a Potential-oriented Approach By Mikael Stigendal; Andreas Novy
  2. Science-industry knowledge exchange: A mapping of policy instruments and their interactions By José Guimón; Caroline Paunov
  3. The economization of education and the implications of the quasi-commodification of knowledge on higher education for sustainable development By Petra Biberhofer
  4. The (Anti-)Competitive Effect of Intellectual Property Rights By Michael Peneder; Mark Thompson; Martin Wörter
  5. The problem of collective increment of knowledge and joint innovation in the structure of interfirm agreements between rival firms By Lyasko, Alexander (Ляско, Александр)
  6. Academic offer and demand for advanced profiles in the EU. Artificial Intelligence, High Performance Computing and Cybersecurity By Montserrat Lopez-Cobo; Giuditta De Prato; Georgios Alaveras; Riccardo Righi; Sofia Samoili; Jiri Hradec; Lukasz Ziemba; Katarzyna Pogorzelska; Melisande Cardona
  7. Does a Strong Academic Integrity Culture Discourage Academic Dishonesty Among Graduate Students? By Mostafa Amir, Sabbih
  8. Brain Drain and Brain Gain in Italy and Ireland in the Age of Mass Migration By Matteo Gomellini; Cormac Ó Gráda

  1. By: Mikael Stigendal; Andreas Novy
    Abstract: This article explores the implications of founding transdisciplinary collaborations of knowledge production in critical realism. We call such equal partnerships of researchers and practitioners knowledge alliances. Using the distinction between the referents that we refer to (what our research is about) and our references (our research about that), we show that practitioners can contribute to the process of knowledge production by providing access to referents and producing references but also by achieving relevance. Researchers and practitioners bring different types of knowledge. To become excellent, knowledge production should be organized in ways, which engage these different types in a constructive interplay. We call this approach potential-oriented, which we put in contrast to the empiricism of evidence-based research and policy-making. Our deliberate choice of the term potential-oriented reflects the shifts in philosophy suggested by critical realism, but also a sensitivity for how practitioners communicate and express themselves.
    Keywords: knowledge alliance, critical realism, transdisciplinarity, social cohesion, urban development
    Date: 2018
  2. By: José Guimón (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid); Caroline Paunov (OECD)
    Abstract: Countries deploy a variety of financial, regulatory and soft policy instruments to promote science-industry knowledge exchange. While these instruments are often discussed in isolation, they are implemented collectively and may reinforce and complement but also weaken or even negatively affect each other and add excessive complexity. This paper develops a conceptual framework to map policy instruments for knowledge exchange and assess the interactions between them. The framework also considers how national contexts and global trends influence the choice of policy instruments. Policy examples drawn from the EC-OECD STIP Compass database and from case studies show that there are significant differences across countries in the relative importance given to each policy instrument in terms of budget, target groups, eligibility criteria, time horizon and implementation. These differences are also a consequence of different country conditions.
    Keywords: co-creation, collaboration, evaluation, intellectual property, interaction, intermediary organisations, knowledge transfer, policy instrument, public research, spin-offs
    JEL: H11 I23 I28 O38
    Date: 2019–04–05
  3. By: Petra Biberhofer
    Abstract: This paper analyses an ongoing economization trend in the sphere of higher education (HE) and discusses its implications on higher education for sustainable development (HESD). The sources of this trend are connected with neoliberalism understood as a political project that seeks to extend competitive market forces, consolidate a market-friendly constitution, and promote individual freedom. In global HE neoliberalism, decision-makers, be it educational, scientific, or other, are pressured to assess how their activities impact financially on the individual, organizational, and institutional levels and/or the imperatives of an internationally competitive economy. The paper provides a contemporary analysis of the rise of neoliberalism in HE, understood as the specific trend of an academic capitalist knowledge/learning regime explained by JessopÂ’s six analytic distinct and potentially overlapping stages of economization. This analysis is based on a review of European policies from 2006 until 2017 and explains characteristics of current economization strategies. Their core principles relating to higher education are about improving economic performance based on knowledge and innovation. Smart growth is defined politically as the main purpose of HE and positioning students as future workers, with the right higher skills, as the means. The relevance of studentsÂ’ skills higher education institutions (HEI) are urged to develop highly depend on business demands. European policies are driven by a comprehensive entrepreneurial agenda restructuring the organizational mechanisms in HE. Accountability towards the labour market and skills performance of students set this agenda. Funding strategies rest on strong industry ties and diversification of revenue streams depend on HEI capability to establish tech-driven knowledge alliances between research, education and business. These new intermediary and powerful alliances drive economization strategies, influence curriculum development and decide on relevant higher level skills. Respective learning practices are oriented strongly towards developing entrepreneurial and digital skills based on personalized learning environments. Currently HESD adapts towards a neoliberal education agenda rather than preventing further shifts from a capitalist towards a competitive financialized economy. A profound critique would have to question the dominant economization trends in higher education i.e. the very purpose of education and the current raison dÂ’etre of HEI. The core of the critique might build on new institutionalized learning environments allowing deep, social learning and, hence, the potential of HEI to act as social catalysts empowering collective and disruptive agency.
    Keywords: economization, higher education, sustainable development, neoliberalism, knowledge-based economy
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Michael Peneder (WIFO); Mark Thompson; Martin Wörter
    Abstract: We test whether intellectual property rights foster or hinder innovation by estimating IV structural equations for a large sample of Swiss firms. We find that better appropriability conditions at the industry level raise the number of competitors. However, conditional on the given industry structure, individual firms face fewer competitors, if they actually use intellectual property rights. The further impact of fewer competitors is to raise R&D, when initial competition is strong, but to reduce it, when initial competition is weak ("inverted U").
    Keywords: patents, innovation, competition, simultaneous system
    Date: 2019–03–27
  5. By: Lyasko, Alexander (Ляско, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: In interfirm strategic alliances, which are forged between direct competitors, two kinds of knowledge-related processes take place at the same time. On one hand, parties to interfirm agreements engage in knowledge and information exchange, with an aim to produce incremental innovations, while not relinquishing control over important parts of knowledge underlying their competitive advantage. On the other hand, partners should recombine their intellectual assets and transform the knowledge they receive in order to create radically novel products, processes and technologies, which boost competitive advantage not for single players, but for all parties involved in strategic collaboration.
    Date: 2019–03
  6. By: Montserrat Lopez-Cobo (European Commission - JRC); Giuditta De Prato (European Commission - JRC); Georgios Alaveras (European Commission - JRC); Riccardo Righi (European Commission - JRC); Sofia Samoili (European Commission - JRC); Jiri Hradec (European Commission - JRC); Lukasz Ziemba (European Commission - JRC); Katarzyna Pogorzelska (European Commission - JRC); Melisande Cardona (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This study aims at supporting the policy initiatives to develop the availability in EC Member States of adequate advanced digital skills in a number of IT domains including Artificial Intelligence, High Performance Computing and Cybersecurity. By making use of the Techno-Economic Segments analytical approach developed under the PREDICT3 project (joint effort of EC JRC and DG CNECT), the study collects data and builds quantitative indicators to provide evidence based policy support. It addresses the mapping of digital skills in the mentioned technological domains from two complementary perspectives: the existing offer of academic courses (bachelor, master and doctoral programs), and the demand of profiles by industry as reflected by industry activity in the referred fields.
    Keywords: digital skills, industry demand, educational offer, artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, high performance computing, digital transformation
    Date: 2019–03
  7. By: Mostafa Amir, Sabbih
    Abstract: The issue of academic dishonesty has received a considerable amount of attention in academic studies over the past 20 years. Researchers have tried to empirically test a number of determinants and factors to explain academic dishonesty. This article aim to investigate the influence of an integrity culture on discouraging academic dishonesty among graduate students of KDI School through applying the knowledge of previous studies related to the academic integrity culture. It applied simple correlation test to observe the influence of contextual factors including existence of honor codes, chance of getting caught and punishment on the likelihood of cheating. However, it could not find enough evidence to support that a strong academic integrity culture discourage academic dishonesty and suspected that there may be other demographic and cultural factors associated.
    Keywords: Academic integrity, contextual factors, higher education, cheating
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2019–03
  8. By: Matteo Gomellini; Cormac Ó Gráda
    Abstract: Emigrants from Italy and Ireland contributed disproportionately to the Age of Mass Migration. That their departure improved the living standards of those they left behind is hardly in doubt. Nevertheless, a voluminous literature on the selectivity of migrant flows— both from sending and receiving country perspectives—has given rise to claims that migration generates both ‘brain drains’ and ‘brain gains’. On the one hand, positive or negative selection among emigrants may affect the level of human capital in sending countries. On the other hand, the prospect of emigration and return migration may both spur investment in schooling in source countries. This essay describes the history of emigration from Italy and Ireland during the Age of Mass Migration from these perspectives.
    Keywords: Migration; Brain Drain; Brain Gain; Human Capital; Italy; Ireland
    JEL: F22 J61 N33 O15
    Date: 2019–03

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