nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2018‒10‒15
five papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. L’écoute des parties prenantes dans une optique de développement durable : continuité ou alternative pour le marketing de projets industriels ? By Fanny Romestant
  2. The role of international and domestic R&D outsourcing for firm innovation By María García-Vega; Elena Huergo
  3. The R&D funding scenario: Can capabilities foster product innovation of firms? El escenario de financiación de I + D: ¿pueden las capacidades fomentar la innovación de productos de las empresas? By Martha Torres-Barreto; Marianela Briceño; Mileidy Alvarez-Melgarejo
  4. Allocation of R&D Grants in the Business Sector By Falk, Martin; Svensson, Roger
  5. STEM Careers and Technological Change By David J. Deming; Kadeem L. Noray

  1. By: Fanny Romestant (Groupe Sup de Co La Rochelle)
    Abstract: This work questions the very purpose of marketing, focused on "customer value" to propose, in line with the work of Deshayes and Lecoeuvre-Soudain (2011) in industrial marketing and projects marketing, the concept of "social value". In the sustainable development mining, this involves to discuss the link between primary stakeholders (client, prime contracting support, companies) and other stakeholders (NGOs, neighborhood, etc.). This research was born through a project with an industrial company in the transport sector, initiating a CSR process. Following an exploratory study focused on the company's clients (depth analysis of tender documents, interviews with key actors of the buying process), and through collaboration with company officials (business developer), it became insufficient to limit our analyses to the cus-tomer's expectations, to understand the issues of a project. The aim of this paper is of theoretical nature. It is about developing an understanding framework to take stakeholders into account in industrial project marketing. This framework suggests that stakeholders can be designed from the perspective of "continuity" or as an "alternative" in project marketing. The objectives of this paper are threefold. Firstly, to put the notion of stakeholders as a specific issue in the business marketing, secondly to propose a new way to understand the concept of stakeholders and finally to show how the stakeholders can change the industrial project. The issue focuses on the construction dynamics of sustainability in industrial projects, seen as a new challenge for business marketing (industrial project marketing).
    Abstract: L'écoute des parties prenantes dans une optique de développement durable : continuité ou alternative pour le marketing de projets industriels ? Cette contribution questionne l'objectif même du marketing centré sur la « valeur client » pour proposer, dans la lignée des travaux de Deshayes et Lecoeuvre-Soudain (2011) en marketing industriel et marketing de projets, la notion de « valeur sociétale ». Dans le cadre du développement durable, cela implique de traiter du lien entre acteurs primaires (client, maîtrise d'oeuvre, entreprises) et les autres parties prenantes (ONG, riverains, etc.). Cette recherche est née d'un projet avec une entreprise du secteur industriel des transports, initiant une démarche de développement durable. À travers une étude centrée sur les clients de l'entreprise (analyse d'appels d'offres, entretiens avec des acteurs clés du processus d'achat), il est apparu insuffisant de se limiter à leurs attentes exprimées pour comprendre les enjeux d'un projet. L'enjeu de cet article est de nature théorique ; il s'agit de proposer une grille de lecture des différentes perspectives pour la prise en compte des parties prenantes en marketing de projets industriels. Cette grille de lecture suggère que les parties prenantes peuvent être conçues dans une perspective de «continuité» ou comme une « alternative » aux méthodes en marketing de projets. Les objectifs de notre article sont d'une part de poser la notion de parties prenantes comme un enjeu spécifique du marketing d'af-faires, d'autre part de proposer une nouvelle manière de lire la notion de parties prenantes et enfin de montrer en quoi les parties prenantes changent le projet industriel. La problématique porte sur la dynamique de construction du développement durable dans les projets industriels appréhendée comme un nouvel enjeu pour le marketing d'affaires (marketing de projets industriels).
    Keywords: stakeholders,industrial project marketing,CSR,Parties prenantes,marketing,RSE
    Date: 2017
  2. By: María García-Vega; Elena Huergo
    Abstract: Firms are increasingly outsourcing their high-tech services. Theory suggests that R&D outsourcing allows firms to specialize in core knowledge-intensive tasks, thereby increasing innovation, but R&D outsourcing may also undermine internal capabilities. Our goal is to empirically assess the relative importance of these two possibilities, distinguishing between national and international R&D outsourcing and firms’ exporting status. We examine R&D purchases of more than 10,000 Spanish firms for the period 2004-2014. We show that R&D outsourcing improves firm innovation. Product innovation rises mostly with domestic outsourcing, while process innovation increases with both domestic and international R&D outsourcing. In addition, we find that international outsourcing provides an extra premium, mostly for exporters. Our results contribute to a better understanding of how firms organize the production of knowledge and innovation.
    Keywords: R&D outsourcing; transaction cost economics; innovation; international versus domestic outsourcing; exporters.
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Martha Torres-Barreto (UIS - Universidad Industrial de Santander [Bucaramanga]); Marianela Briceño (Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB)); Mileidy Alvarez-Melgarejo
    Abstract: Product innovation is a widespread scheme of organizational innovation recognized by OECD (2005), hence the concept of innovation itself has driven much attention of many agendas as the Strategic European Research one (European Commision, 2013). In this artecle we develop an analytical model of the technological impact of public funding for private R&D activities in terms of product innovations achieved, to study if its differential effects among firms depend to some extent on firm´s resources and capabilities. This analysis is based on firm level data from the manufactory industry under the ESSE (Spanish survey for Firms Strategy), for the period 2000-2012. We identify the technological activities of 3350 Spanish firms, characterize their resources and capabilities and identify the most relevant ones regarding its influence on product innovation. We detect that both: public R&D funds and private investment help in the new product generation; but also, that the innovation capabilities and inter-firm cooperation positively affect the technological outcome.
    Abstract: La innovación de productos es un esquema generalizado de innovación organizacional reconocido por el Manual de Oslo, de ahí que el concepto de innovación ha atraído la atención de muchas agendas como Strategic European Research (European Commision, 2013). En este artículo se desarrolla un modelo analítico del impacto tecnológico del financiamiento público para actividades privadas de I + D en términos de innovaciones de producto logradas, para estudiar si sus efectos diferenciales entre empresas dependen en cierta medida de los recursos y capacidades de la empresa. Este análisis se basa en los datos a nivel de empresa de la industria de la manufactura bajo ESSE (encuesta española para estrategia de las empresas), para el período 2000-2012. Se identificaron las actividades tecnológicas de 3350 empresas españolas, se caracterizaron sus recursos y capacidades e identificaron las más relevantes en cuanto a su influencia en la innovación de productos. Se encontró que tanto los fondos públicos de I + D como la inversión privada ayudan en la generación de nuevos productos; pero también, que las capacidades de innovación y la cooperación inter-empresarial afectan positivamente el resultado tecnológico.
    Keywords: Capabilities,innovation,public funding,resources.,Capacidades, innovación, financiamiento público, recursos.
    Date: 2018–09–04
  4. By: Falk, Martin (Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)); Svensson, Roger (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the most crucial determinants of success for firms applying for public R&D grants. Previous studies have been limited to firm level data and mainly tested how firm characteristics affect the allocation of R&D grants. Thereby, they cannot differentiate between firms that have applied for grants but been rejected and firms that did not apply at all. Our contribution is that we use a detailed database of accepted and rejected R&D applications and also introduce several measures of quality indicators of R&D project applications. The estimates show that R&D projects that are assessed with good or very good ratings are significantly more likely to receive approval; particularly for innovative content and novelty as well as to expected additional impacts on R&D activities. In contrast to previous studies, most firm-level characteristics (R&D intensity, labor productivity, cash flow, industry affiliation) are not relevant, indicating that the R&D funding agency does not discriminate among different types of firms. Consequently, applicant firms should focus on radical, new and innovative ideas in their applications rather than on minor improvements.
    Keywords: Government R&D-funding; Business sector; Evaluation criteria
    JEL: H25 O32 O38
    Date: 2018–09–14
  5. By: David J. Deming; Kadeem L. Noray
    Abstract: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) jobs are a key contributor to economic growth and national competitiveness. Yet STEM workers are perceived to be in short supply. This paper shows that the “STEM shortage” phenomenon is explained by technological change, which introduces new job tasks and makes old ones obsolete. We find that the initially high economic return to applied STEM degrees declines by more than 50 percent in the first decade of working life. This coincides with a rapid exit of college graduates from STEM occupations. Using detailed job vacancy data, we show that STEM jobs changed especially quickly over the last decade, leading to flatter age-earnings profiles as the skills of older cohorts became obsolete. Our findings highlight the importance of technology-specific skills in explaining life-cycle returns to education, and show that STEM jobs are the leading edge of technology diffusion in the labor market.
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2018–09

This nep-knm issue is ©2018 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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