nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2018‒03‒05
six papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Inter-firm Technological Proximity and Knowledge Spillovers By Koki Oikawa
  2. Stimularea creativității, inovării și transferului tehnologic în universități By Tirziu, Andreea-Maria
  3. Government Debt and the Returns to Innovation By Croce, Mariano Massimiliano; Nguyen, Thiên Tung; Raymond, Steve; Schmid, Lukas
  4. Analysis of the Flows of Technological Knowledge in Russia and the World By Kurakova, N.G.; Zinov, Vladimir; Eremchenko, Olga; Tsvetkova, Liliya; Kurakov, Fedor
  5. Dinner Table Human Capital and Entrepreneurship By Hvide, Hans K
  6. Controlling working crowds: The impact of digitalization on worker autonomy and monitoring across hierarchical levels By Michael Beckmann; Lutz Bellmann; Elisa Gerten

  1. By: Koki Oikawa
    Abstract: This paper has two objectives. One is to survey previous studies concerning indicators of technological proximity and distance to identify technological relationships between firms, particularly in terms of spillovers of technology and knowledge. The other objective is to reexamine the spillover effect in research and development by combining the traditional technological proximity with a measurement of within-field technological relationships, which is based on patent citation overlaps. I find that the average technological proximity is increasing over these three decades in the United States and within-field technological proximity shows sizable variations, and that the spillover effect is underestimated unless the changes in within- field proximities are taken into account.Length: 27 pages
  2. By: Tirziu, Andreea-Maria
    Abstract: In the digital age in which we live today, the way and the channels through which information is transmitted determines the need to develop all areas of activity, adapting them to the needs and demands of the individuals that today form the so-called knowledge-based societies or, and more specifically, informational. Obviously, universities are part of the category of institutions that need to offer their services in a cheaper, simpler and faster way. Objectives: This paper aims to provide a specific framework through which universities can contribute to the stimulation of creativity, which will lead to the creation or improvement of innovations, all enjoying the transmission of data through technology. Approach: The article was based on a bibliographic research of the specialized papers addressing the complex subject of creativity, innovation and technological transfer, the final part of which constituted a case study that gathers information provided by students from different study cycles through a questionnaire on the subject. Results: The use of current technologies highlights their importance in stimulating creativity, leading to beneficial innovations both for the academic environment and for society as a whole, and in this way can be developed and improved the relationship between the public administration, the citizens and the private sector, to which their needs will be taken into account and their requirements will be met in a much more efficient way than would be the case of traditional means.
    Keywords: education, innovation, digital environment, creativity
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Croce, Mariano Massimiliano; Nguyen, Thiên Tung; Raymond, Steve; Schmid, Lukas
    Abstract: Elevated levels of government debt raise concerns about their effects on long-term growth prospects. Using the cross section of US stock returns, we show that (i) high-R&D firms are more exposed to government debt and pay higher expected returns than low-R&D firms; and (ii) higher levels of the debt-to-GDP ratio predict higher risk premia for high-R&D firms. Furthermore, rises in the cost of capital for innovation-intensive firms predict declines in subsequent productivity and economic growth. We propose a production-based asset pricing model with endogenous innovation and fiscal policy shocks that can rationalize key aspects of the empirical evidence. Our study highlights a novel and distinct risk channel shaping the link between government debt and future growth.
    Keywords: Cross Section of Stock Returns; Fiscal Uncertainty; Government Debt; growth; predictability; R&D
    Date: 2018–01
  4. By: Kurakova, N.G. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Zinov, Vladimir (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Eremchenko, Olga (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Tsvetkova, Liliya (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Kurakov, Fedor (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The accelerating processes of globalization, the exit of research projects beyond national borders and the strengthening of international cooperation in the scientific and technical sphere form the evolution of global cooperation when developing technologies in the field of creating high-tech goods and services. Scales, dynamics, beneficiaries and possible consequences of diffusion of advanced scientific and technological knowledge from the Russian Federation are estimated in the work. The main reason for the loss of human and technological capital is the lack of interest in advanced development by companies in the industrial sector of the Russian Federation. The conclusion is substantiated that it is necessary to create in Russia an effective system for monitoring and controlling the process of securing rights to breakthrough results of scientific and technological activities, including those created for the state budget.
    Date: 2017–02–12
  5. By: Hvide, Hans K
    Abstract: We document three new facts about entrepreneurship. First, a majority of male entrepreneurs start a firm in the same or a closely related industry as their fathers' industry of employment. Second, this tendency is correlated with intelligence: higher-IQ entrepreneurs are less likely to follow their fathers.Third, an entrepreneur that starts a firm in the same 5-digit industry as where his father was employed tends to outperform entrepreneurs in the same industry whose fathers did not work in that industry. We consider various explanations for these facts and conclude that "dinner table human capital", where children obtain industry knowledge through their parents, is an important factor behind what type of firm is started and how well it performs.
    Date: 2018–01
  6. By: Michael Beckmann; Lutz Bellmann; Elisa Gerten (University of Basel)
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of information and communication technologies (ICT) on worker autonomy and monitoring using the second wave of the German Linked Personnel Panel, a linked employer-employee data set. From a theoretical point of view, the impact of ICT on workplace organization is ambiguous. On the one hand, the fast diffusion of ICT among employees makes it possible to monitor professional activities, leading to greater centralization. On the other hand, ICT enable employees to work more autonomously, so that workplace organization becomes more decentralized. We find indeed evidence for the argument that both centralization and decentralization tendencies might appear simultaneously. If modern digital technologies are used for work, worker monitoring is increasing for all employees, but only managerial employees gain in autonomy. The use of instrumental variables estimation tightens our results in a manner that ICT increases both worker autonomy and monitoring, but only for managerial employees, where the ICT effect on autonomy exceeds the corresponding ICT effect on monitoring. All in all, our results support the view that digitalization unlike prior technological revolutions primarily affects the employment prospects and working conditions for employees at higher hierarchical levels.
    JEL: L22 M54 O33
    Date: 2018

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