nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2017‒10‒22
six papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Investing in innovation and skills: Thriving in global value chains By Luca Marcolin; Mariagrazia Squicciarini
  2. Asymptotic Expansion as Prior Knowledge in Deep Learning Method for high dimensional BSDEs By Masaaki Fujii; Akihiko Takahashi; Masayuki Takahashi
  3. Sources of Knowledge Used by Entrepreneurial Firms in the European High-Tech Sector By Sara Amoroso; David B. Audretsch; Albert N. Link
  4. Impact of human capital on opportunity entrepreneurship in Colombia, Chile and Ecuador By Geovanny Castro Aristizabal; Luis Eduardo Giron Cruz; Daniel Soto Cuadros
  5. Cooperating with Universities and R&D Organizations: Mainstream Practice or Peculiarity? By Roud Vitaliy; Valeriya Vlasova
  6. Communicating Company Innovation Culture: Assessment Through Job Advertisements Analysis By Natalia Shmatko; Alina Lavrynenko; Dirk Meissner

  1. By: Luca Marcolin (OECD); Mariagrazia Squicciarini (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper synthesises the main policy implications of OECD work focusing on the interplay between participation and positioning in global value chains (GVCs), employment demand and supply and workforce’s skills endowment. They relate to: the way innovation, technology and participation in GVCs shape employment in routine intensive and non-routine jobs; the relationship between participation in GVCs and polarisation of employment; the way the skill composition of a country’s workforce – both the type of skills and their distribution – shapes specialisation and positioning along GVCs; and the complementarities emerging between GVC participation and investment in knowledge-based capital, especially organisational capital and ICT.
    Date: 2017–10–19
  2. By: Masaaki Fujii; Akihiko Takahashi; Masayuki Takahashi
    Abstract: We demonstrate that the use of asymptotic expansion as prior knowledge in the "deep BSDE solver", which is a deep learning method for high dimensional BSDEs proposed by Weinan E, Han & Jentzen (2017), drastically reduces the loss function and accelerates the speed of convergence. We illustrate the technique and its implications using Bergman's model with different lending and borrowing rates and a class of quadratic-growth BSDEs.
    Date: 2017–10
  3. By: Sara Amoroso (European Commission - JRC); David B. Audretsch (Indiana University); Albert N. Link (Bryan School of Business and Economics University of North Carolina-Greensboro)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between an entrepreneur’s experience and education and his/her reliance on alternative sources of knowledge for exploring new business opportunities. The extant literature that is at the crossroads between sources of knowledge and the experiential and intellectual base of an entrepreneur (i.e., dimensions of his/her human capital) suggests that it is through experience and through education that an entrepreneur obtains knowledge. Using information on a sample of high-tech manufacturing firms across 10 European countries, we explore heterogeneities in the influence of experience, age, and education of the firm’s primary founder on the perceived importance of (i.e., use of) alternative sources of knowledge. We find that the association of these characteristics differs significantly across sources of knowledge, and across European regions. Education is positively related to the importance of knowledge from research institutes and internal know-how, while age is negatively related to the importance of research institutes and positively related to publications and conferences. On the one hand, in South/East European countries, the importance of internal know-how is positively associated with age and education, but negatively associated with experience. On the other hand, the characteristics of primary founders of North/West European firms are more linked to the importance of the participation to funded research programmes. This source of knowledge is related positively with age and education and negatively with experience.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Knowledge; Experience; Education; Human Capital
    JEL: L26 J24 D83
    Date: 2017–05
  4. By: Geovanny Castro Aristizabal; Luis Eduardo Giron Cruz; Daniel Soto Cuadros (Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali)
    Abstract: The present study finds the main factors that influence entrepreneurship in Colombia, Chile and Ecuador, based on data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor -GEM, 2014- and the Entrepreneurship Activity Rate -TEA-. For this, initially, the multivariate method of Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used. Subsequently, a binomial logit model was estimated for each of the countries. It was found that both formal and informal human capital are determinant to generate entrepreneurship by opportunity. Likewise, experience, empirical knowledge, gender and age. Finally, by including in the model the technological level of the sector (medium-high), it was estimated that Chile has a greater impact on entrepreneurship. given the current situation of diminishing tensions with the US government.
    Keywords: Cuba, Entrepreneurship opportunity, Logit models, Multiple Correspondence Analysis, Human Capital, Colombia, Ecuador, Chile.
    JEL: J24 L26 Y40
    Date: 2017–10
  5. By: Roud Vitaliy (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Valeriya Vlasova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper develops an integrated framework to examine the determinants of industry-science cooperation in the general process of developing innovation. Based on the literature review and using firm-level data on innovation strategies of 805 manufacturing enterprises in Russia we investigate what are the incentives to firms (1) to cooperate with universities and R&D organizations and (2) to choose a particular mode of interaction that ranges from purchasing S&T services to a full scale original R&D aimed at creating new-to-market innovation. We suggest that a broad range of intramural and external determinants, including competition regime, absorptive capacity, technological opportunities, appropriability conditions, public support, as well as barriers to the practical application of R&D results influence the firm’s decision on cooperation with knowledge producers. The findings indicate that the scale of industry-science linkages in Russian manufacturing is limited and generally hampered by low propensity of business to the R&D-based innovation strategies
    Keywords: Science-industry cooperation; Innovation strategy; Firm-level; Manufacturing; Russia
    JEL: D22 D83 L2 O31
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Natalia Shmatko (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Alina Lavrynenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Dirk Meissner (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper explores the composition of researchers' skillsets in an innovation-driven environment from the perspective of employers. The authors analyze the relation between skills requirements described in job advertisements for researchers and the presumed innovation culture of companies. The study is based on job advertisements content analysis and in-depth interviews with chiefs of research and development companies. It uses biotechnology industry as an example as it is one of the fastest-growing and innovation-driven sectors globally. Authors used data from Russian, as well as Canadian, UK and USA job search engines to consider international context. Empirical findings demonstrated that skills composition stress on hard skills more frequently and detailed, while soft skills are often a "must have without saying". The same is for digital skills that are assumed to be essential in high-tech companies globally and therefore not fully specified in job ads. There is a certain mismatch between skills presented in the ads and articulated in the interviews as employers tend to demonstrate innovation-friendly company culture for possible applicants. The present paper enriches literature on skills assessment, giving comprehensive lists of biotech skills in-demand divided into soft and hard categories. In addition, it provides the new insight into employee skills articulated by the companies as a strong element of organizational innovation climate
    Keywords: knowledge economy, open innovation, company innovation culture, biotechnology, skills
    JEL: J24 L65 M14 M51
    Date: 2017

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