nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2017‒09‒17
five papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Knowledge Diffusion and Trade across Countries and Sectors By Nan Li; Jie Cai; Ana Maria Santacreu
  2. A concise history of the knowledge base literature: challenging questions for future research By Ron Boschma
  3. Foreign Investment and Domestic Productivity: Identifying Knowledge Spillovers and Competition Effects By Christian Fons-Rosen; Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan; Bent E. Sorensen; Carolina Villegas-Sanchez; Vadym (V.) Volosovych
  4. Knowledge transfer in merger and acquisition processes in the metallurgical industry By Miskiewicz, Radoslaw
  5. Network-Mediated Knowledge Spillovers: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis of Information Security Innovations By Branstetter, Lee; Gandal, Neil; Kunievsky, Nadav

  1. By: Nan Li (International Monetary Fund); Jie Cai (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics); Ana Maria Santacreu (St. Louis Fed)
    Abstract: Countries and sectors interact through knowledge spillovers and international trade flows. These interactions drive differences in income per capita and innovation not only across countries, but also across sectors within a country. We develop and quantify a model of innovation, knowledge diffusion and trade that can explain these differences. Using data on intersectoral patent citations, R&D expenditures and international trade flows, we calibrate the model and perform several counterfactual exercises. Decreases in trade costs or increases in the speed of diffusion reallocate resources across countries and sectors, generating a distributional effect on aggregate innovation and growth.
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Ron Boschma
    Abstract: This chapter aims to sketch a short history of the differentiated knowledge base (DKB) literature that has been initiated and pioneered by Bjorn Asheim. In its formative years, the DKB approach described three knowledge bases and explored the nature of knowledge sourcing and its geographical extent within each knowledge base. We identify seven claims proposed by DKB scholars concerning the geography of knowledge bases. Lately, DKB 1.0 has been challenged on several grounds. In recent years, a second generation of DKB literature, dubbed as DKB 2.0, has emerged, becoming more tightly connected to the evolutionary approach in economic geography. DKB 2.0 takes a combinatorial approach to innovation and links it to evolutionary concepts like related variety and proximity. Its prime focus is on identifying combinations between knowledge bases and, to an increasing extent, combinations within knowledge bases, and assessing whether these combinations enhance innovative performance. As DKB 2.0 is still in an embryonic stage, we identify promising avenues for future research, inspired by evolutionary thinking.
    Date: 2017–09
  3. By: Christian Fons-Rosen (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, CEPR, and Barcelona Graduate School of Economics, Spain); Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan (University of Maryland, CEPR, and NBER, the USA); Bent E. Sorensen (University of Houston and CEPR, the USA); Carolina Villegas-Sanchez (ESADE - Universitat Ramon Llull, Spain); Vadym (V.) Volosovych (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus Research Institute of Management, the Netherlands; Tinbergen Institute, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: We study the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on total factor productivity (TFP) of domestic firms using a new, representative firm-level data set spanning six countries. A novel finding is that firm-level spillovers from foreign firms to domestic companies can be significantly positive, non-existent, or even negative, depending on which sectors receive FDI. When foreign firms produce in the same narrow sector as domestic firms, the latter are negatively affected by increasing competition and positively affected by knowledge spillovers. We find that the positive spillovers dominate if foreign firms enter sectors where firms are "technologically close,'' controlling for the endogeneity of their entry decision into such sectors. Positive technology spillovers also affect firms in other sectors, if those sectors are technologically close to the sectors receiving FDI. Increasing FDI in sectors that are technologically close to other sectors boosts TFP of domestic firms by twice as much as increasing FDI by the same amount across all sectors.
    Keywords: Multinationals; Competition; Technology; Selection; FDI; TFP
    JEL: E32 F15 F36 O16
    Date: 2017–09–05
  4. By: Miskiewicz, Radoslaw
    Abstract: Knowledge and information have now become a major factor of innovation, development and competitiveness of enterprises. Therefore they are of greater and greater interest of the management. Underestimating the role of knowledge and information, and their insufficient use pose a threat to the company and can destroy its competitiveness. Knowledge has also become one of the key motives for conducting mergers and acquisitions. Merging and acquisition processes generate natural challenges and the accompanying risks both for management and shareholders, as shown by numerous publications and studies, indicating low rates of achieving the planned effects of the above-mentioned processes, as well as the very high costs of carrying them out. For many years, one of the basic means of achieving external growth by companies operating in different sectors of the economy is their amalgamation through mergers and acquisitions. As an example, a strong consolidation trend in the US banking sector, dating back to the 1920s, can be presented. Between 1960 and 1965, about 900 commercial banks were consolidated in various forms. According to S. Sudarsanam, it is generally believed that companies are acquiring or want to merge with other companies cannot provide their shareholders with benefits of this process. Similar position is taken by N. Danon-Boileau, arguing that large-scale mergers and acquisitions (over USD 1 billion) led to a decline in the value of consolidated companies, devaluating shareholders’ incomes. The combination of theoretical knowledge with experience gained through a broader economic perspective allows for a deeper insight into the details of the problem. The need to reach the smallest items was noticed by P.M. Senge, a researcher who within system approach suggested that „complex things should be investigated in their complexity”. This wisdom has been used and practically applied by the Author collecting and processing the acquired knowledge into the science and practice of economic activity.
    Keywords: Knowledge, transfer, metallurgical industry, processes
    JEL: O1 O14 Z0
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Branstetter, Lee; Gandal, Neil; Kunievsky, Nadav
    Abstract: A large and growing literature has used patent and patent citation data to measure knowledge spillovers across inventions and organizations, but relatively few papers in this literature have explicitly considered the collaboration networks formed by inventors as a mechanism for shaping and transmitting these knowledge flows. This paper utilizes an approach developed by Fershtman and Gandal (FG 2011) (and applied to Open Source Software) to examine the incidence and nature of knowledge flows mediated by the collaboration networks of inventors active in the information security industry. This is an industry in which a number of nations outside the United States, including Israel, have emerged as important centers of innovation. Israeli prominence in this sector is often attributed, in part, to a dense network of personal collections and collaborations that has its genesis in elite intelligence units in the Israeli Defense Forces, through which many Israeli information security inventors and entrepreneurs receive their first exposure to this domain. Using data from U.S. PTO patent grants in information security, we find that the quality of Israeli information security inventions is systematically linked to the structure of the collaborative network generated by Israeli inventors in this sector. Using the FG (2011) model, this suggests that there are knowledge spillovers from the network. In some other nations, invention quality is less closely linked to the collaboration networks of inventors. This research highlights the importance of direct interaction among inventors as a conduit for flows of frontier scientific knowledge.
    Keywords: Information Security; Knowledge Spillovers; patents
    JEL: O31 O33 O57
    Date: 2017–09

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