nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2017‒07‒30
six papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Le brevet instrument de politique économique pour promouvoir l’innovation au profit de la croissance : discussion théorique By MABROUKI, Mohamed
  2. Policy Analysis in Ex-ante Evaluation of Government R&D Programs By HYUN-KYU KANG
  3. Under the AEGIS∗ of knowledge intensive entrepreneurship: Employment growth and gender of founders among European Firms By Sara, Amoroso; Albert, Link
  4. Welfare Effects of R&D Support Policies By Takalo, Tuomas; Tanayama, Tanja; Toivanen, Otto
  5. Intellectual Property Rights, Multinational Firms and Technology Transfers By Sara Biancini; Pamela Bombarda
  6. Demand and innovation: theory and evidence By Dawid, Herbert; Pellegrino, Gabriele; Vivarelli, Marco

  1. By: MABROUKI, Mohamed
    Abstract: At the theoretical level, the establishment of a patent system has two objectives: to encourage firms to produce new knowledge and to disseminate information. However, economic practice has highlighted the dilemma between protection and dissemination. This paper discusses how to determine the optimal level of protection across the three dimensions of the patent. While the representation of patent characteristics by microeconomic models is very rich and detailed, innovation-based growth models that have examined with precision how growth can vary with the system of industrial protection are few. The representation of three dimensions of the patent, by these latter models is rather abstract.
    Keywords: Innovation Brevet Croissance
    JEL: D0 O31 O34
    Date: 2017–07–21
  2. By: HYUN-KYU KANG (Korea Institute of Sicence & Technology Evaluation and Planning)
    Abstract: In order to enhance the efficiency of government investment on research and development (R&D), since 2008 the Korean government has applied the preliminary feasibility study (PFS) to new large scale government R&D programs. The PFS of R&D programs is an ex-ante evaluation that is performed in point of views of technology, policy and economy.Because a lot of tax should be expended to conduct a government R&D program, the program should be conducted based on the national science and technology (S&T) strategies, and the program expense should be used meaningly on the basis of the consensus of national policy and society. Also it is good that all risk factors should be known before starting the R&D program. Therefore the feasibility analysis on policy is very important part of the ex-ante evaluation of R&D program. In this paper, main contents of the feasibility analysis on policy will be explained. The policy analysis is composed of the evaluation criteria of three layers and deals with policy issues and other issues that could not be analyzed in technological analysis and economic analysis.
    Keywords: Preliminary feasibility study, Ex-ante evaluation, Government R&D program, Policy analysis
    JEL: O32 O38 D81
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: Sara, Amoroso (Joint Research Centre, European Commission); Albert, Link (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: An increasing number of theoretical and empirical analyses address the role of innovation as one of the main sources of firm growth. More recently, studies have looked at the role of gen-der diversity as a possible determinant of innovation and entrepreneurial performance. How-ever, the relationship between gender and employment growth —a dimension of entrepreneurial performance— still remains unexplored to a large degree. This paper contributes to the empiri-cal literature on gender and entrepreneurial performance in several ways. First, it examines the role played by both innovation and gender ownership as determinants of employment growth rates of young, knowledge intensive entrepreneurial (KIE) firms. Second, it investigates the indirect impact of contributing factors —such as the characteristics of the market, knowledge-based capital, and human capital— on employment growth. And third, it relies on a rich new cross-sectional data set on young, KIE firms across European Union (EU) countries. The data set contains information not only on the gender of the firm’s founders, but also on the market environment, business strategy, and innovative and economic performance of firms.
    Keywords: innovation; entrepreneurship; employment growth; gender
    JEL: J16 L26 O31
    Date: 2017–07–24
  4. By: Takalo, Tuomas; Tanayama, Tanja; Toivanen, Otto
    Abstract: We build a structural model of the R&D subsidy process incorporating externalities, fixed costs of R&D, and financial market imperfections. We estimate the model using project level R&D and subsidy data from Finland. We conduct a counterfactual analysis of an optimal R&D tax credit policy, the first and second best policies, and laissez-faire with no support and compare them to the subsidy policy used in Finland. We find that the optimal R&D tax credit rate is 0.24, which is lower than the observed average R&D subsidy rate (0.36). R&D participation does not vary across regimes. The R&D investments and spillovers generated by the optimal R&D tax credit and subsidy policies are significantly higher than under laissez-faire but smaller than in the first and second best. Neither tax credits nor subsidies improve welfare compared to laissez-faire.
    Keywords: counterfactual; R&D subsidies; welfare
    Date: 2017–07
  5. By: Sara Biancini; Pamela Bombarda (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: Intellectual property rights (IPR) protect firms from imitation and are considered crucial to promote innovation and technological diffusion. This paper examines the im- pact of IPR on import sourcing decisions of multinationals. We consider a framework in which multinational firms offshore production of an intermediate good in a developing country. Firms can either decide to import the intermediate from vertically integrated producers, or from independent suppliers. In both cases, offshoring part of the produc- tion process embodies a risk of imitation. The model predicts that, under reasonable assumptions, stronger IPR encourage by a larger extent the imports of intermediates through vertical integration. Using U.S. Related-Party Trade database, we find empiri- cal evidence supportive of the positive link between level of IPR and the relative share of imports from vertically integrated manufacturers.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, MNF, FDI, outsourcing, international trade.
    JEL: F23 F12
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Dawid, Herbert; Pellegrino, Gabriele; Vivarelli, Marco
    Abstract: While the extant innovation literature has provided extensive evidence of the so-called "demand-pull" effect, the possible diverse impact of demand evolution on product vs process innovation activities has not been yet investigated. This paper develops a formal model predicting a larger inducing impact of past sales in fostering product rather than process innovation. This prediction is then tested through a dynamic microeconometric model, controlling for R&D persistence, sample selection, observed and unobservable individual firm effects and time and sectoral peculiarities. Results are consistent with the model and suggest that an expansionary economic policy may benefit the diffusion of new products or even the emergence of entire new sectors.
    Keywords: technological change,R&D,demand-pull innovation,dynamic two tobit
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2017

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