nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2017‒07‒16
twelve papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Evolution of the Global Knowledge Network: Network Analysis of Information and Communication Technologies’ Patents By Kibae Kim
  2. Forward Guidance without Common Knowledge By George-Marios Angeletos; Chen Lian
  3. Technology Network Innovation and Distribution By Jingong Huang
  4. Knowledge Transfer and Intra-Firm Trade By Sotiris Blanas; Adnan Seric
  5. The Dynamics of Knowledge in Portugal - The Role Played by Public Institutions By CHAGAS LOPES, MARGARIDA
  6. A Note on Schumpeterian Competition in the Creative Class and Innovation Policy By Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Yoo, Seung Jick
  7. Secular trends in innovation and technological change By Frietsch, Rainer; Schubert, Torben; Neuhäusler, Peter
  8. Spécificités des déterminants des innovations environnementales : une approche appliquée aux PME By Pinget, Amandine
  9. Impact of Organizational Culture on the Pakistani Hotels Workforce's Job Satisfaction: Qualitative Report By Zahid, Marium; Shaikh, Taha; Zehra, Syeda Zufiesha
  10. Green production indicators, a guide for moving towards sustainable development By Cervera-Ferri, José L.; Luz Ureña, Mónica
  11. Education, Governance, Trade and Distance: Impact on Technology Diffusion and the East Asia-Latin America Productivity Gap By Schiff, Maurice
  12. State and Knowledge Production: Industrial Relations Scholarship under Chinese Capitalism By Enying Zheng; Simon Deakin

  1. By: Kibae Kim (Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program; College of Engineering; Seoul National University)
    Abstract: In recent studies, Information and Communication Technologies have been key drivers of innovation and economic growth throughout the world. Because the Information and Communication Technology products and services require intensive knowledge, leading countries invested in their innovation systems to operate more effectively and efficiently. Studies on innovation have investigated the knowledge base of countries and their respective relationships with their national institutions, and subsequent economic growth to identify factors which have led to success. However, the approaches of previous studies omit the constituents of the knowledge base while focusing on quantitative aspects such as size. In this article, I propose a novel approach to exploring the knowledge base at a global level by undertaking a network analysis of patents. In this framework, the global knowledge network is defined as a set of countries and respective technological similarities between countries as vertices and edges. Applying this framework, the research questions are addressed qualitatively by identifying the structure of the network and how it has evolved. The analysis results indicate that the global knowledge network consists of a cluster of developed countries, and the cluster is linked with developing countries through Japan, U.S.A. and China. They also show that the Information and Communication Technology leaders changed from Great Britain and France to U.S.A. in 1920s, from U.S.A. to Japan in 1970s. The framework is expected to be applied to economic studies of innovation and knowledge bases at a global level.
    Keywords: Global Knowledge Network, Information and Communication Technology, Technology Leadership, Network Analysis, Patents.
    JEL: A12 O33 O34 O53
    Date: 2015–09
  2. By: George-Marios Angeletos (MIT); Chen Lian (MIT)
    Abstract: Forward guidance—and macroeconomic policy more generally—relies on shifting expectations, not only of future policy, but also of future economic outcomes such as income and inflation. These expectations matter through general-equilibrium mechanisms. Recasting these expectations and these mechanisms in terms of higher-order beliefs reveals how standard policy predictions hinge on the assumption of common knowledge. Relaxing this assumption anchors expectations and attenuates the associated general-equilibrium effects. In the context of interest, this helps lessen the forward-guidance puzzle, as well as the paradox of flexibility. More broadly, it helps operationalize the idea that policy makers may find it hard to shift expectations of economic outcomes even if they can easily shift expectations of policy.
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Jingong Huang (University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: Motivated by empirical evidence from the U.S. patent citation data on the dynamics of firms' patent portfolio development, I build a model of innovation incorporating a technology network structure. The model features firms operating in multiple technology sectors and internalising the spillovers of their own knowledge accumulation to produce patents. Two new insights emerge: The technology network is an important determinant of the patent distribution in different sectors. The growth of patents in each sector is proportional to the Eigenvector Centrality of the technology network. The model is estimated using Simulated Method of Moments and it is capable of reproducing the patent distribution observed in the data.
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Sotiris Blanas; Adnan Seric
    Abstract: Using a unique sample of foreign affliates in Sub-Saharan Africa, we study the relationship of the extensive and intensive margins of their intra-firm trade with knowledge transfer to them from their parent companies. We find that the engagement of foreign affliates in intra-firm trade and their share of intra-firm trade are positively associated with the probability of these receiving crucial parental assistance in the use of patents, trademarks, and brand names, technology and know-how, access to foreign supplier network, and access to global markets. Foreign afiliates which engage in intra-firm trade and those with a higher share of this type of trade also receive more important overall parental assistance. The positive associations between intra-firm trade and knowledge transfer in the form of patents, trademarks and brand names are weaker in countries with relatively strong legal rights than in countries with relatively weak legal rights. Our findings point to the interplay between property rights and intangible assets theories of the multinational firm by suggesting that the joint role of knowledge ows in production and of multinational firm boundaries as facilitators of transfers of tangibles and intangibles is crucial.
    Keywords: knowledge transfer, intra-firm trade, foreign affliates, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F14 F21 F23 L21 L23 L24
    Date: 2017
    Abstract: Abstract The process of knowledge development in Portugal has progressed at very different speeds in function of the economic outlook and the alternation of political power. The main driving and regulatory forces have been greatly conditioned by domestic and international restrictions. In this framework, public institutions during the previous social-democratic Government and above all the Portuguese Agency for Science and Technology, have greatly contributed to the backlash in the previous favourable evolution which had been characterizing the evolution of knowledge development since the first decade of 2000.This has led to instability and the discontinuity of the framework of public policy, which has been faced with two kinds of fundamental problems: a series of structural blocks which have proved difficult to eradicate, and the lack of a true knowledge strategy.
    Keywords: knowledge development, Portugal, political alternation, public institutions, regulation. JEL Classification: O32, O33, O38.
    JEL: O32 O33 O38
    Date: 2016–08
  6. By: Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Yoo, Seung Jick
    Abstract: We study innovation policy in a region in which the members of the creative class engage in Schumpeterian competition and thereby extend aspects of the recent analysis in Batabyal and Yoo (2017). Using the language of these researchers, the creative class is broadly composed of existing and candidate entrepreneurs. In contrast to these researchers, we suppose that R&D by candidate entrepreneurs does not generate any negative externalities. In this setting, we analyze the impact that taxes and subsidies on R&D by existing and candidate entrepreneurs have on R&D expenditures and regional economic growth.
    Keywords: Creative Class, Creative Destruction, Economic Growth, Innovation Policy, R&D
    JEL: O31 O38 R11
    Date: 2017–06–30
  7. By: Frietsch, Rainer; Schubert, Torben; Neuhäusler, Peter
    Abstract: This paper deals with the question of changing relations between business R&D (BERD), patents and output measures like value added and productivity (macro level) as well as EBIT and market capitalization (micro level) to analyze long-term/secular effects of technological change at different levels. The results of the panel data reveal an increase of the patent numbers resulting from R&D expenditures. However, we also find a difference in the elasticities of BERD and patents between patent-intensive and non-patent-intensive sectors. In addition, the association between patents and labor productivity falls when all sectors are taken into account, implying decreasing contributions of technological progress to the productivity. Yet, the drivers are non-patent-intensive sectors, as we observe an increasing association of patents and labor productivity for patent-intensive sectors. The results of the enterprise panel data reveal similar results. The correlations between R&D and patents increased over the last 20 years, although it seems there is a concentration of R&D and patenting activities to a smaller amount of firms, which can partially be explained by the fact that research and development that is necessary for a single patent has become more and more expensive in the past years.
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Pinget, Amandine
    Abstract: Understanding how companies innovate for positive environment impact and sustainable development is a crucial issue for business and society today. Yet, little is currently known about this particular kind of innovation. The objective of this thesis is to shed light on the specificities of environmental innovation for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of determinants and perceived barriers. The theoretical framework is based on the Porter’s Hypothesis in order to examine the effect of regulation. It is enriched by the RBV and KBV approaches to better take into account SMEs’ capabilities and resources in the adoption of environmental innovation. This research is based on three empirical articles and on a quantitative approach which mobilizes several econometric methods. This thesis contributes to three key findings: (1) Environmentally innovative SMEs perceive more barriers, in more intense and numerous ways, compared to others innovative or non-innovative SMEs; (2) Environmentally innovative SMEs utilize more external knowledge sources than other SMEs; (3) SMEs, like large firms, can adopt environmental innovations proactively because they possess certain capacities. These results lead to public policy and managerial recommendations for more widespread and more effective environmental innovation in SMEs.
    Keywords: Environmental innovation, Technological innovation, Determinants, Barriers, Strategic profile, SMEs
    JEL: Q5 Q55
    Date: 2016–12–01
  9. By: Zahid, Marium; Shaikh, Taha; Zehra, Syeda Zufiesha
    Abstract: The influence of organizational culture on the level of job satisfaction depends on the ability to cope up with the stress and working environment. This investigation tackle the purpose of Denison’s prototypical for searching the organizational culture and Spector JGS assessment to inspect workforce job gratification in the course of 5 points Likert Scale. The investigation studied 220 hotel employees from middle range 3 star hotels in Pakistan. For interpretation, researchers chiefly used MS Excel for classifying, coding, and fractionizing raw facts into processed meaningful themes. Current investigation demonstrates that employee’s job satisfaction chiefly dependent on organizational culture. The study undertakes in the direction of achieving organizational goals by initiating fortify strategies towards building the strength to obtain the objective. Moreover if organizations built a strong environment of learning as a part of their culture than it boosts the commitment level of employees. Further, it also helps employees to unfolding their career achievements. On the other hand, it is observed that females are occupied with higher level of job satisfaction while males have lower. Although, high level of job satisfaction exists but its more evident by this research that premiums, bonuses, and other types of incentives aid employees to lead from low level of job satisfaction to reach on their higher apex level of job satisfaction.
    Keywords: Organizational culture, financial rewards, job satisfaction, hotel workforce, gender perspective
    JEL: I0 I15 L21 L83 M0 M12 M14 Z10
    Date: 2017–05–10
  10. By: Cervera-Ferri, José L.; Luz Ureña, Mónica
    Abstract: This publication is the outcome of a project entitled “Towards a set of indicators for greener production”, co-financed by ECLAC and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada, the objective of which was to develop specific knowledge for promoting the design and compilation of harmonized regional indicators on sustainable production and the incorporation of green technologies in firms of Latin America and the Caribbean. The guide should be seen as a set of methodological recommendations for voluntary application. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the use of these guidelines will facilitate the production of data (providing instruments that countries can readily adapt) and enhance their comparability. The production and dissemination of internationally harmonized data on green production will help policymakers in the industrial and environmental areas, as well as businesses and society in general, to understand more thoroughly the environmental processes and practices of firms and allow them to take appropriate decisions for reducing the harmful effects of industrialization, to promote environmentally friendly growth, and to seize new economic opportunities in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
    Date: 2017–01
  11. By: Schiff, Maurice (World Bank)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of education, trade, governance and distance on technology diffusion and TFP in Latin America – specifically South America and Mexico (SAM) – and East Asia, over the 32 years preceding the Great Recession (1976–2007). Findings are: i) TFP rises with education, trade, governance (ETG) and trade's R&D content, and falls with distance to the (closest) North; ii) the East Asia – SAM education gap's impact equals that of trade plus governance; iii) an increase in SAM's ETG to East Asia's level raises TFP by over 100 percent and fully accounts for its TFP gap with East Asia; and iv) South America's TFP loss relative to Mexico due to its greater distance to 'US–Canada' (Europe and Japan) is 9.30 (0.02) percent.
    Keywords: East Asia and LAC, technology diffusion, productivity, education, trade, governance, distance
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2017–06
  12. By: Enying Zheng; Simon Deakin
    Abstract: We use the evolution of industrial relations scholarship in China to study the role of the state in the process of knowledge production. In the course of the last decade the policy of the Chinese state has shifted from promoting a flexible labour market as part of an export-led growth strategy, to addressing problems of growing labour unrest. This shift has, however, yet to be reflected in research and teaching of industrial relations. Drawing on an archive of over 7,000 articles published in Chinese-language journals, we show that the industrial relations field has failed to cohere in China as it did in North America and Western Europe in response to similar pressures in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Chinese research on labour issues is divided between a practice-orientated human resource management literature and a sociological approach which is isolated from practice and policy. We explain this pattern in terms of the distinctive nature of Chinese capitalism, which manages to be simultaneously state-encompassed yet individualistic, leaving little space for the collective institutions of civil society which have been the focus of industrial relations research in the West.
    Keywords: Encompassing state, knowledge production, industrial relations, management education, civil society
    JEL: J41 J83 K31 O43
    Date: 2016–06

This nep-knm issue is ©2017 by Laura Ştefănescu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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