nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2017‒07‒09
eight papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. The Locus of Knowledge Externalities and the Cost of Knowledge. By Antonelli, Cristiano; Colombelli, Alessandra
  2. The Engines of the Creative Response: Reactivity and Knowledge Governance. By Antonelli, Cristiano
  3. Research, knowledge transfer and innovation: the effect of Italian universities’ efficiency on the local economic development 2006-2012 By Tommaso Agasisti; Cristian Barra; Roberto Zotti
  4. Human capital and sustainable development in Nigeria: How can economic growth suffice environmental degradation? By Ekperiware, Moses Clinton; Olatayo, Timothy O.; Egbetokun, Abiodun Adeyemi
  5. The Digital Economy—Insight from a Special Survey with IT Service Exporters By Wei Dong; James Fudurich; Lena Suchanek
  6. International protection of intellectual property rights: a stochastic frontier index By José Fernández Donoso; Fernando Hernández
  7. Smart Specialization policy in the EU: Relatedness, Knowledge Complexity and Regional Diversification By Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Ron Boschma; Joan Crespo; David L. Rigby
  8. Firms' knowledge acquisition during dual-track VET: Which sources are important for innovativeness? By Christian Rupietta; Harald Pfeifer; Uschi Backes-Gellner

  1. By: Antonelli, Cristiano; Colombelli, Alessandra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper provides an extended CDM approach to analyse jointly the simultaneous effects of knowledge spillovers in the knowledge generation function and in the technology production function. It introduces the distinction between imitation and knowledge externalities and articulates the hypothesis that spillovers yield their effects via three well distinct mechanisms: i) knowledge externalities that exert positive and direct effects on the knowledge production function, and ii) indirect effects on the technology production function via their effects on the cost of knowledge; iii) imitation externalities exert direct and positive effects on productivity in the technology production function. We test our hypotheses on a large panel of Italian companies distributed in the NUTS2 regions for the period 2005 – 2009. The econometric analysis consists in a model comprising a system of equations that test the simultaneous role of spillovers in the knowledge generation function and the technology production function with the inclusion of endogenous knowledge costs. The results confirm that the access to external knowledge – as an input in the knowledge generation function – plays a key role in increasing the knowledge output and – as an input in the technology production function – has positive indirect and direct effects on the productivity of firms.
    Date: 2017–06
  2. By: Antonelli, Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The notion of endogenous innovation as the outcome of the creative response of firms to out-of-equilibrium conditions is the cornerstone of the new evolutionary complexity. This essay explores the role of the reactivity of firms to out-of-equilibrium conditions and of knowledge governance in assessing the chances that creative responses actually take place as an alternative to adaptive responses. It implements a systemic frame able to show that: i) the levels of reactivity of firms enhance the research efforts of rims that try and cope with out of equilibrium conditions; ii) the actual rates of introduction of innovations and increase of total factor productivity are contingent upon the quality of knowledge governance, and iii) out-of-equilibrium conditions, as well as the amount of knowledge externalities are the endogenous outcome of the creative response.
    Date: 2017–06
  3. By: Tommaso Agasisti (Politecnico di Milano School of Management); Cristian Barra (Università di Salerno); Roberto Zotti (Università di Salerno)
    Abstract: In this paper, we test whether there is a link between the performance of universities and the local economic development of the territory where they operate. The performance of academic institutions is measured through an efficiency concept, estimated by means of an innovative Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), and considering indicators of teaching, research and ‘third mission’ as outputs. A system generalized method-of-moments (Sys- GMM) dynamic panel estimator, instrumented with time lags and differences is estimated over the period from 2006 to 2012 to solve the potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables. Our findings reveal that the presence of efficient universities fosters local economic development, and that knowledge spillovers occur between areas through the geographical proximity to the efficient universities.
    Keywords: Higher education; knowledge spillovers; local economic development; efficiency of universities
    JEL: I21 E01
  4. By: Ekperiware, Moses Clinton; Olatayo, Timothy O.; Egbetokun, Abiodun Adeyemi
    Abstract: The motivation for sustainable development is universal but strides to achieve it have been mixed in the literature with some schools of thought's position that economic growth is anti-sustainable development. The crux of this study is to examine the coordinating role (as engine) of human capital among the three pillars of sustainable development in Nigeria from 1981 to 2014 with data from the World Development Indicators (WDI) 2014. Descriptive statistics is used to illustrate observed trend in human capital and the pillars of sustainable development (economic development, social development, and environment protection). Vector Auto-Regression (VAR) econometric technique was used to measure trade-offs, effects, interrelationships, and scenario analysis of these indicators and the prominent role of increased human capital scenario in achieving sustainable development. The analyses of the interrelationship and scenario effects of increased human capital formation showed that environmental degradation negatively affected human capital formation but increases with economic growth. A scenario of further increase in human capital development reduces environmental degradation and increases economic growth in Nigeria. Hence, human capital formation leads to sustained economic growth with reducing environmental degradation.
    Keywords: sustainable development,human capital development,population, and environmental degradation,economic development
    JEL: O1 Q01
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Wei Dong; James Fudurich; Lena Suchanek
    Abstract: Information technology (IT) is an increasingly integral part of everyday business and personal life reflecting the ongoing and accelerating digital transformation of the economy. In this paper, we present information gathered from a survey with export-oriented firms in the Canadian IT service industry and consultations with industry associations aimed at shedding light on this small but highly dynamic sector. Our main findings from this survey are: (i) IT service firms experience strong sales growth and tend to be very positive about their outlook, driven by the solid exports that comprise the majority of their sales; (ii) in this context, firms overwhelmingly view the weaker Canadian dollar as favourable, boosting their margins on foreign sales; (iii) because of the knowledge-intensive nature of the industry, firms report investing in human capital more than in physical capital. This often comes with strong employment and R&D investment intentions, although firms in some regions face difficulties in recruiting qualified staff. The survey results provide initial insight in the context of our broader agenda to better understand the implications of digitalization for the Canadian economy.
    Keywords: Firm dynamics, Service Sector
    JEL: D22 L86 O33
    Date: 2016
  6. By: José Fernández Donoso; Fernando Hernández (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: This paper combines two bodies of work: the literature regarding the measurement of the strength of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection systems and stochastic production frontier efficiency analysis. We propose measuring the efficiency of IPR protection systems by comparing optimal production frontier of innovation to real results, through a measure based on the existing Stochastic Frontier Analysis of technical efficiency. Our results indicate that, despite imperfect datasets, this approach provides interesting results comparable to measures in Park (2008) and other IPR strength indicators. Some issues to be further explored longer datasets and richer information, and innovation measurements. This paper also adds some evidence to the idea of an inverted U relationship between innovation output and IPR protection system strength.
    Keywords: Intellectual property, Innovation, Global Innovation Index, Patent applications, Economic development, Stochastic frontier analysis, Fixed effects
    Date: 2017–05
  7. By: Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Ron Boschma; Joan Crespo; David L. Rigby
    Abstract: Smart specialization has become a hallmark of the EUÕs Cohesion Policy. Envisaged as a bottom-up initiative identifying local knowledge cores and associated competitive advantages, the operationalization of smart specialization has been rather limited, as a coherent set of analytical tools to guide the policy directives remains elusive. To tackle the weak underpinning of smart specialization policy, we propose a policy framework around the concepts of relatedness and knowledge complexity. We use EPO patent data to provide evidence on how EU regions develop new technologies in the period 1990-2009. We find that diversifying into more complex technologies is highly attractive but difficult for EU regions to accomplish. Regions can overcome this diversification dilemma by developing new complex technologies that build on local related capabilities. We use these findings to construct a policy framework for smart specialization that highlights the potential risks and rewards for regions of adopting competing diversification strategies. We show how potential costs of alternative strategies in regions may be assessed by making use of the relatedness concept, and how potential benefits of various smart specialization strategies can be derived from estimates of the complexity of technologies. A series of case-studies of different types of regions illustrate the utility of this policy framework. Length:
    JEL: O25 O38 R11
    Date: 2017–07
  8. By: Christian Rupietta (University of Wuppertal); Harald Pfeifer (Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB)); Uschi Backes-Gellner (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Researchers debate for more than 3 decades on the effect of vocational training on innovations. While some studies show a negative effect of vocational education that firms organize on its own, other studies show a positive effect for vocational education that is organized on a sectoral or national level such as in Germany or Switzerland. A characteristic of these vocational education and training (VET) systems is a high level of standardization and regulation. In fact many elements of VET are regulated in national law, training ordinances and curricula, but firms nevertheless less still have a high flexibility when it comes to the organization of workplace training. In this paper we analyze how firms organize their workplace training, which training methods they use and which training methods they apply jointly. As each training method e.g. training during work or external courses, transfers a specific set of skills and knowledge to apprentices, we analyze how firms use training methods to promote their innovation activity. Our results show that there is a large variety in the organization of workplace training. In sum firms make use of the flexibility to design workplace training that fits their needs best. We conclude with implications for the design of VET systems and firms.
    Keywords: Learning Modes, Innovation, Vocational Education, fsQCA, negative binomial regression
    Date: 2017–07

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