nep-knm New Economics Papers
on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy
Issue of 2017‒05‒14
six papers chosen by
Laura Ştefănescu
Centrul European de Studii Manageriale în Administrarea Afacerilor

  1. Knowledge Properties and Economic Policy: A New Look By Antonelli, Cristiano
  2. A technological model of the R&D process and its implications with scientific research and socio-economic activities By Angelo Bonomi
  3. (English) The Retreat of Public Research and its Adverse Consequences on Innovation (Italiano) I cambiamenti nella ricerca pubblica e le conseguenze avverse sull’innovazione By Daniele Archibugi; Andrea Filippetti
  4. The Creative Response and the Endogenous Dynamics of Pecuniary Knowledge Externalities: An Agent Based Simulation Model. By Antonelli, Cristiano; Ferraris, Gianluigi
  5. The Power of Big Data: Historical Time Series on German Education By Claude Diebolt; Gabriele Franzmann; Ralph Hippe; Jürgen Sensch
  6. Are school-provided skills useful at work? Results of the Wiles test By Jacek Liwinski

  1. By: Antonelli, Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper explores the full range of effects of knowledge properties and explains how knowledge properties such as transient appropriability, nonexhaustibility and indivisibility do not only have negative effects, but also positive ones. Knowledge externalities help reduce the cost of knowledge and imitation externalities reduce the revenue and profitability of innovations. Their effects need to be considered jointly in a single analytical framework. An analysis of their combined effects questions the scope of application of the “Arrovian postulate” according to which the limited appropriability of knowledge due to its uncontrolled dissemination reduces invention. This ignores spillovers of outside knowledge, which increase invention. These are the two opposing faces of the limited appropriability of knowledge. Policy implications suggest that along with public interventions designed to support the supply of knowledge and to compensate for missing incentives, much attention should be paid to all interventions that favour the dissemination of knowledge and the knowledge connectivity of the system.
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Angelo Bonomi (CNR-IRCRES, National Research Council, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Moncalieri, Italy)
    Abstract: This work describes a model of the R&D process derived by technology management and experience in carrying out this type of activity. The model gives a comprehensive description of the numerous processes of technological nature involving innovations from science to business. The model sees R&D as an organizing activity of fluxes of knowledge and capitals with a dynamics that is determined by R&D projects and their implementing rather than by R&D investments. The model recognizes the existence of a general knowledge generated by R&D activities, formed either by successful or abandoned projects, not necessarily linked to the objectives of the projects, and diffusing among the various actors making R&D in the distributed innovation system existing in conditions of open innovation. Such general knowledge has a role of driving force in developing innovative ideas and saving R&D costs. The model separates neatly the R&D process from scientific research considering existence of an intertwining process between research and R&D. About relation with socio-economic factors determining the effects of new technologies, the model presents different views about relation of R&D investments and economic growth. In fact it considers the inexistence of limits to generation of new technologies, when unlimited financing of R&D is available, and highlights the importance of the specific innovative system of a country in determining the contribution of R&D investments to its economic growth. Concluding the model considers that economic growth does not depend actually on R&D investments, that should be considered rather a means, but on the intensity of generation of innovative ideas, that depends on the efficiency of the territorial innovative system, and on adopted strategies and availability of capitals financing their development joined with an effective industrial organization.
    Keywords: research & development, R&D model, R&D management, technology innovation, knowledge spillover, socio-economic growth
    JEL: O30 O31 O47
    Date: 2017–02
  3. By: Daniele Archibugi; Andrea Filippetti
    Abstract: (English) Does it matter whether research is conducted by the private business rather than in universities or government research centres? While most of the attention of science and innovation policy in the last decades has explored the relevance of the interconnections between public and business players in enhancing knowledge-based societies, a major trend has been ignored: both the quota of public R&D and its share over the total R&D investment has shrunk in most OECD countries. As a result, a larger fraction of knowledge is today generated in the private sector. We argue that this is a major problem since public research and private research differ along a number of characteristics, e.g. public access, potential for future technological innovations, criteria of resource allocation. This trend can have adverse implications for long-term innovation and economic welfare in our societies. Through the lens of the public goods theory and of the sector of funding and execution of R&D for the period 1981-2012 we try to explain why. (Italiano) E' un problema se l'attività di ricerca è condotta nelle imprese private piuttosto che nelle università e nei centri di ricerca pubblici? Mentre numerosi studi di politica della scienza e dell'innovazione degli ultimi decenni hanno esplorato la rilevanza delle interconnessioni tra soggetti pubblici e privati nel promuovere le società basate sulla conoscenza, una tendenza fondamentale è stata ignorata: sia la quota di R&S pubblica che la sua quota sul totale dell'investimento in R&S sono diminuite nella maggior parte dei paesi OCSE. Di conseguenza una frazione maggiore di conoscenza è oggi generata nell'industria. Viene qui sostenuto che si tratta di un fondamentale problema perché le attività di ricerca pubblica e quella privata hanno sostanziali differenze e specificità, tra le quali: le condizioni di accesso, il potenziale di ulteriori innovazioni tecnologiche, i criteri per l'allocazione delle risorse. Queste tendenze hanno conseguenze nocive per il benessere e l'innovazione nelle nostre società. Tentiamo di spiegare perché attraverso la prospettiva della teoria dei beni pubblici e dei settori di finanziamento e di esecuzione della R&S per il periodo 1981-2012.
    Keywords: (English) R&D; Knowledge economy; Public sector; Public goods; Intellectual property; Technology transfer (Italiano) Economia della conoscenza; Settore pubblico; Beni pubblici; Proprietà intellettuale; Trasferimento tecnologico
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Antonelli, Cristiano; Ferraris, Gianluigi (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The paper elaborates an agent based simulation model (ABM) to explore the endogenous long-term dynamics of knowledge externalities. ABMs, as a form of artificial cliometrics, allow the analysis of the effects of the reactivity of firms caught in out-of-equilibrium conditions conditional on the levels of endogenous knowledge externalities stemming from the levels of knowledge connectivity of the system. The simulation results confirm the powerful effects of endogenous knowledge externalities. At the micro-level, the reactions of firms caught in out-ofequilibrium conditions yield successful effects in the form of productivity enhancing innovations, only in the presence of high levels of knowledge connectivity and strong pecuniary knowledge externalities. At the meso-level, the introduction of innovations changes the structural characteristics of the system in terms of knowledge connectivity that affect the availability of knowledge externalities. Endogenous centrifugal and centripetal forces continually reshape the structure of the system and its knowledge connectivity. At the macro system level, an out-of-equilibrium process leads to a step-wise increase in productivity combined with non-linear patterns of output growth characterized by significant oscillations typical of the long waves in Schumpeterian business cycles.
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA, University of Strasbourg Strasbourg, France); Gabriele Franzmann (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Cologne, Germany); Ralph Hippe (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Directorate for Growth and Innovation, Human Capital and Employment Unit.); Jürgen Sensch (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Cologne, Germany)
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Jacek Liwinski (University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Although it has been over 40 years since labour economists started testing human capital vs. signalling explanation of the wage premium from education, the debate is still going on and authors keep on proposing new methods of testing. The human capital theory postulates that investment in education enhances the productive capacity of individuals, while according to the signalling hypothesis the value of a graduation diploma follows from the fact that it signals innate abilities of its holder. We apply the approach proposed by Wiles to test for the signalling hypothesis and, in particular, to find out if there is a positive relation between education and productivity. For this purpose, we construct a job match index based on information if school provided knowledge and skills are useful at work and the job performed is relevant to the field of study. Then we check if the quality of job matching is related to wages of graduates in Poland. To answer this question, a wage equation was estimated using OLS on the basis of data from a representative, nationwide tracer survey of Poles who left secondary schools or graduated from higher education institutions over the period of 1998-2005. We find out that knowledge and skills acquired in the course of formal education bring wage benefits only to university graduates. Besides, this group receives a wage premium, which may be attributed to their high innate abilities. In sum, the outcomes are consistent with the weak signalling hypothesis, since they show that tertiary education signals a high level of innate abilities and at the same time it provides knowledge and skills which enhance individual productivity at work. Besides, we find evidence of the strong signalling hypothesis with regard to the secondary vocational schools leavers.
    Keywords: education, human capital, signalling, job matching, wage equation
    JEL: J24 J31
    Date: 2017–04

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